Left and right atrial myocardial deformation properties in patients with an atrial septal defect.
ABSTRACT Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common form of congenital heart defect in adults, which affects all cardiac chambers. Atrial myocardial function in patients with ASD has not yet been clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate atrial myocardial deformation properties in patients with ASDs.
The study involved 24 patients with a secundum type ASD, and 22 healthy subjects. Color Doppler myocardial imaging was used to measure left and right atrial myocardial systolic strain and strain rate values, together with peak systolic velocity, early velocity, and late diastolic velocity.
There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to age, gender, body mass index, heart rate, blood pressure, left atrial diameter, and ventricular function. The peak systolic atrial myocardial strain and strain rate values in each of the atrial walls studied were lower in the ASD group compared to those of the control group, but the difference reached statistical significance only in the case of the right atrial wall (right atrial strain: 48.0 +/- 32.7% vs 100.2 +/- 46.6%, P = 0.006; right atrial strain rate: 2.6 +/- 1.2/sec vs 3.8 +/- 1.2/sec, P = 0.024).
The left to right cardiac shunt that results from ASD leads to a reduction in the right atrial myocardial longitudinal lengthening that occurs during ventricular ejection. These findings demonstrate that the reservoir function of the atrium is impaired and atrial stiffness increases in patients with ASDs.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate acute change of right and left ventricle after percutaneous closure of isolated atrial septal defect (ASD) 21 adult patients (13 F; 8 M) aged 28 ± 9.5 range 18–49 years have been examined by echocardiography before and 24 hours after percutaneous closure of ASD. Twenty-one normal adult subjects, as control group were included. A MyLab25 echo machine equipped with a multifrequency 2.5–3.5 MHz transducer was used. Offline computer-based analysis for strain and SR were performed using XStrain software based on a feature tracking algorithm. All patients had ASD OS2 with right ventricular dilatation and diastolic areas were larger than in controls: P = 0.0158. Global right ventricular longitudinal strain was higher P = 0.0438. Twenty-four hours after ASD closure, right ventricular diastolic and systolic areas were significantly reduced. Right ventricular global longitudinal systolic strain decreased: P = 0.00016, as well as global right ventricular longitudinal SR –1.56/sec ± 0.57 vs. –1.28/sec ± 0.31, P = 0.02646. At the mean time left ventricular end diastolic volume and left ventricular cardiac output measured by two-dimensional echocardiography both increased significantly P = 0.002145 and 0.013409. Global circumferential strain at mitral level augmented significantly –20.3%± 4.64 vs. –25.39%± 5.22, P = 0.00003. Longitudinal strain of the right ventricle works as indicator of right ventricular function dependent on loading conditions while SR seems to be less dependent on it. Circumferential strain could be used as an indicator of left ventricular response to normalized loading conditions. (Echocardiography 2011;28:730-737)Echocardiography 05/2011; 28(7):730 - 737. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Single ventricle (SV) exercise performance is impaired and limited by reduced ventricular preload reserve. The atrium modulates ventricular filling, and enhancement of atrial compliance can increase cardiac performance. We aimed to study atrial mechanics in SV hearts across staged surgical palliation compared with healthy children by using novel speckle-tracking echocardiography techniques. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 81 patients with SV (1 day to 6.5 years) at 4 stages of surgical palliation (presurgery, 22; prebidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis, 23; pre-Fontan, 22; post-Fontan, 14). The dominant atrium was assessed with speckle-tracking echocardiography for active (εact), conduit (εcon), and reservoir (εres) strain; strain rate (SR); and εact/εres ratio before each stage of surgical palliation. Findings were compared with the left atrium of 51 healthy children (1 day to 5.5 years). RESULTS: Single ventricle atrial size was increased (P < .01), and atrial εres was decreased (P < .01) compared with healthy controls. SV atrial εcon (P < .01) and SRcon (P < .0001) was decreased, increased εact persisted (P < .05), and εact/εres was increased (P < .001) between surgical stages. Although the expected maturational trend of increasing εcon, decreasing εact, and εact/εres occurred in SV, they lagged behind healthy maturational changes (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Single ventricle atrium is dilated, has deceased compliance, decreased early diastolic emptying, and increased reliance on active atrial contraction for ventricular filling. This deviates from normal early childhood maturational changes and appears to parallel those of an atrium facing early ventricular diastolic dysfunction.Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 05/2013; · 2.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: We hypothesized that contraction of the LA wall could be documented by speckle tracking and could be applied for assessment of LA function. This study tried to identify the association between LA longitudinal strain (LAS) and strain rate (LASR) measured by speckle tracking with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). Methods: Fifty-two patients (61 ± 17 years old, 23 men) with sinus rhythm at baseline referred for the evaluation of episodic palpitation were included. Standard four-chamber and two-chamber views were acquired and analyzed off-line. Peak LAS and LASR were carefully identified as the peak negative inflection of speckle tracking waves after P-wave gated by electrocardiography. Results: Ten patients (19%) had PAF. LAS, LASR, age, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, left ventricular mass, LA volume, and mitral early filling-to-annulus early velocity ratio were different between patients with and without PAF. After multivariate analysis, LASR was significantly independently associated with PAF (OR 8.56, 95% CI 1.14–64.02, P = 0.036). Conclusion: Speckle tracking echocardiography could be used in measurements of LAS and LASR. Decreased negative LASR was independently associated with PAF. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 26, November 2009)Echocardiography 10/2009; 26(10):1188 - 1194. · 1.26 Impact Factor