Treatment with alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone preserves calcium regulatory proteins in rat heart allografts.
ABSTRACT Prevention of graft dysfunction is a major objective in transplantation medicine. Previous research on experimental heart transplantation indicated that treatment with the immunomodulatory peptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) improves histopathology, prolongs allograft survival, and reduces expression of the main tissue injury mediators. Because calcium-handling is critical in heart graft function, we determined the effects of transplantation injury and influences of alpha-MSH treatment on representative calcium regulatory proteins in rat heart allografts. Hearts from Brown Norway rats were transplanted heterotopically into MHC incompatible Lewis rats. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), protein kinase C epsilon (PKC epsilon), sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase 2 (SERCA2a), arrestin-beta1 (Arrb1), cholinergic receptor M2 (Chrm2), and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 (InsP(3)R1) were examined in: (1) non-transplanted donor hearts; (2) allografts from saline-treated rats; and (3) allografts from rats treated with the synthetic alpha-MSH analog Nle4-DPhe7-alpha-MSH (NDP-alpha-MSH) (100 microg i.p. every 12h). Transplantation injury was associated with severe reduction in calcium regulatory protein transcription and expression level. NDP-alpha-MSH administration partly reversed inhibition of protein transcription and almost completely prevented protein loss. Finally, because certain effects of cyclic 3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling on calcium handling in cardiac myocytes depend on activation of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (Epac1), we determined Epac1 mRNA and protein expression in heart allografts. Transplantation injury markedly reduced Epac1. NDP-alpha-MSH treatment significantly preserved both Epac1 protein and mRNA in the allografts. Administration of alpha-MSH or related melanocortins could reduce transplantation-induced dysfunction through protection of heart calcium regulatory proteins.
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ABSTRACT: The transmission of extracellular signals to the interior of the cell is a function of plasma membrane receptors, of which the seven transmembrane receptor family is by far the largest and most versatile. Classically, these receptors stimulate heterotrimeric G proteins, which control rates of generation of diffusible second messengers and entry of ions at the plasma membrane. Recent evidence, however, indicates another previously unappreciated strategy used by the receptors to regulate intracellular signaling pathways. They direct the recruitment, activation, and scaffolding of cytoplasmic signaling complexes via two multifunctional adaptor and transducer molecules, beta-arrestins 1 and 2. This mechanism regulates aspects of cell motility, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and likely other cellular functions through a rapidly expanding list of signaling pathways.Science 05/2005; 308(5721):512-7. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The goal of the present review is to report information concerning cardiac innervation or more precisely to approach the modulation of cardiac electrical and mechanical activity by parasympathetic innervation. Acetylcholine (ACh) release by nerve endings from the vagus nerve hyperpolarizes the membrane, shortens action potential (AP) duration and has a negative inotropic effect on cardiac muscle. Toxins are usefull tools in the study of membrane signals. The Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) has a muscarinic effect on frog atrial fibres. The toxin evokes the release of ACh from motoneuron nerve terminals innervating this tissue which allows us to propose a model, similar to the one of the neuromuscular junction (nmj), to describe the events occurring during the triggering and release of ACh. Trachynilysin (TLY) is a proteic toxin which causes an influx of Ca2+ into the cells and releases ACh from nmj synaptic vesicles. TLY has a muscarinic effect on atrial fibres which is explicated in the release of neurotransmitter from the nerve endings generated by the TLY-induced Ca2+ influx. It is known that ACh release from nmj is known to be due to exocytosis of synaptic vesicles via the activation of a proteic complex blocked by botulinum toxins. One of these proteins SNAP-25 is the target of type A botulinum toxin (BoNT/A). The study of hearts isolated from BoNT/A poisoned frogs show that atrial AP is lengthened and reveals the presence of SNAP-25 in nerve endings of this tissue. Moreover, the electrical activity of ventricular muscle is markedly altered; in BoNT/A treated frog, an important outward current activated by internal Ca2+ develops. ACh released from nerve terminals binds to a G protein coupled membrane receptor and activates a K+ channel and other effectors. Five subtypes of muscarinic receptors have been cloned from different tissue (M1, M2, M3, M4) subtypes have been identified in cardiac tissues throughout many species. These receptors coupled with different G-proteins activate different effectors. M1 receptors modulate the cardiac plateau and therefore the magnitude of the peak contraction. M2 receptors are mainly involved in the repolarization phase of the AP and modulate the duration of the peak contraction. The roles of M3 and M4 are not yet clearly defined; however, they may activate K+ currents. In conclusion, ACh releases from parasympathetic nerve endings which innervate cardiac cells follows to similar events (Ca2+ influx; presence of a SNAP-25 protein) to those which produce ACh release from nmj, stimulates different G proteins coupled muscarinic receptors, and activates different effectors involved in the modulation of cardiac electrical and mechanical activity.Journal de la Société de Biologie 02/1999; 193(6):469-80.
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ABSTRACT: Of the ions involved in the intricate workings of the heart, calcium is considered perhaps the most important. It is crucial to the very process that enables the chambers of the heart to contract and relax, a process called excitation-contraction coupling. It is important to understand in quantitative detail exactly how calcium is moved around the various organelles of the myocyte in order to bring about excitation-contraction coupling if we are to understand the basic physiology of heart function. Furthermore, spatial microdomains within the cell are important in localizing the molecular players that orchestrate cardiac function.Nature 02/2002; 415(6868):198-205. · 38.60 Impact Factor