Treatment with alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone preserves calcium regulatory proteins in rat heart allografts.
ABSTRACT Prevention of graft dysfunction is a major objective in transplantation medicine. Previous research on experimental heart transplantation indicated that treatment with the immunomodulatory peptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) improves histopathology, prolongs allograft survival, and reduces expression of the main tissue injury mediators. Because calcium-handling is critical in heart graft function, we determined the effects of transplantation injury and influences of alpha-MSH treatment on representative calcium regulatory proteins in rat heart allografts. Hearts from Brown Norway rats were transplanted heterotopically into MHC incompatible Lewis rats. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), protein kinase C epsilon (PKC epsilon), sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase 2 (SERCA2a), arrestin-beta1 (Arrb1), cholinergic receptor M2 (Chrm2), and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 (InsP(3)R1) were examined in: (1) non-transplanted donor hearts; (2) allografts from saline-treated rats; and (3) allografts from rats treated with the synthetic alpha-MSH analog Nle4-DPhe7-alpha-MSH (NDP-alpha-MSH) (100 microg i.p. every 12h). Transplantation injury was associated with severe reduction in calcium regulatory protein transcription and expression level. NDP-alpha-MSH administration partly reversed inhibition of protein transcription and almost completely prevented protein loss. Finally, because certain effects of cyclic 3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling on calcium handling in cardiac myocytes depend on activation of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (Epac1), we determined Epac1 mRNA and protein expression in heart allografts. Transplantation injury markedly reduced Epac1. NDP-alpha-MSH treatment significantly preserved both Epac1 protein and mRNA in the allografts. Administration of alpha-MSH or related melanocortins could reduce transplantation-induced dysfunction through protection of heart calcium regulatory proteins.
Article: NSA9, a human prothrombin kringle-2-derived peptide, acts as an inhibitor of kringle-2-induced activation in EOC2 microglia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, microglial cell activation is thought to contribute to CNS injury by producing neurotoxic compounds. Prothrombin and kringle-2 increase levels of NO and the mRNA expression of iNOS, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha in microglial cells. In contrast, the human prothrombin kringle-2 derived peptide NSA9 inhibits NO release and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 in LPS-activated EOC2 microglia. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of NSA9 in human prothrombin- and kringle-2-stimulated EOC2 microglia. Treatment with 20-100 muM of NSA9 attenuated both prothrombin- and kringle-2-induced microglial activation. NO production induced by MAPKs and NF-kappaB was similarly reduced by inhibitors of ERK (PD98059), p38 (SB203580), NF-kappaB (N-acetylcysteine), and NSA9. These results suggest that NSA9 acts independently as an inhibitor of microglial activation and that its effects in EOC2 microglia are not influenced by the presence of kringle-2.BMB reports 07/2009; 42(6):380-6. · 1.72 Impact Factor