Postprandial serum induces apoptosis in endothelial cells: Role of polymorphonuclear-derived myeloperoxidase and metalloproteinase-9 activity.
ABSTRACT Postprandial state is a pro-inflammatory condition associated with a transient impairment of endothelial function. Recent evidence suggests that myeloperoxidase (MPO) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The present study was carried out to investigate whether a fat meal induces polymorphonuclear (PMN) activation and increases the plasma activity of MPO and MMP-9 and whether postprandial serum exerts pro-apoptotic effects on endothelial cells. Fifteen healthy young men underwent a high-fat challenge containing 60g butter. Blood samples were drawn before, and 1, 2, and 4h after the meal. Leukocyte reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, plasma MPO and MMP-9 activity, endothelial-derived soluble CD146 levels, and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels were determined. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with human sera to evaluate mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production, annexin PI staining, and caspase-3 activity. Triglycerides, ROS production, MPO activity, AOPP levels, pro-MMP-9 zymographic activity, and soluble CD146 levels significantly increased during the 4h after the test meal. Postprandial serum significantly decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the rate of ROS production, the percentage of annexin-positive HUVECs, and caspase-3 activity. A strong relationship was observed between postprandial increase in PMN-derived MPO and pro-MMP-9 activity, and the increased rate of apoptosis of endothelial cells exposed to postprandial serum. Data show that postprandial serum exerts pro-apoptotic effects on endothelial cells. The close relationships between markers of endothelial cell apoptosis and MPO and pro-MMP-9 activity suggest that the latter may contribute to the development of fat meal induced endothelial damage.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases with an important role in physiological and pathological remodeling. Their activity is regulated by tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Excess MMPs and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity has been associated with loss of tooth supporting tissues in periodontal disease (PD). We investigate the changes in salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and MPO concentrations during PD treatment and compare results with plasma levels. METHODS: MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were analyzed by ELISA. Gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 forms were determined by zymography, and the MPO activity was determined by colorimetric assay. RESULTS: Subjects were divided into 2 groups: PD and control, which were further divided into 2 subgroups each, namely PD before (PB) and after 3months (PA) of non-surgical periodontal therapy, and healthy volunteers at baseline (CB) and 3months after baseline (CA). Subgroup PA presented lower gelatinolytic activity and MMP-8 and TIMP-2 concentrations in the saliva compared with PB (p<0.05). MPO activity was higher in PB compared with CB (p<0.05). There were significant correlations between the gelatinolytic activity of the saliva and MMP-8 and MMP-9 plasma levels. There was significant correlation between plasma and saliva TIMP-2 levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggest attenuation of some inflammatory markers in the saliva and plasma after PD treatment. Moreover, correlations between salivary and plasma levels exist for some of these markers.Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 03/2013; · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and the expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 and myeloperoxidase protein (MPO) in clinically healthy human pulp and inflamed pulp tissue specimens. Twenty dental pulps clinically diagnosed as inflammatory tissues and 20 healthy pulp tissues from enclosed third molars were harvested and evaluated. The gelatinolytic activity for MMP-2 and MMP-9 was assessed by using the zymography technique, TIMP-2 gene expression was evaluated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and MPO was determined using the MPO assay. Data showed increased levels of MMP-9, active MMP-2, TIMP-2, and MPO in inflammatory pulp tissues compared with healthy tissues (P < .05). No statistical difference could be observed for pro-MMP-2 (P > .05). Although all samples were associated with MMP-2 expression, the active form of this MMP was observed only in inflamed pulps. Inflamed pulps showed an up-regulation of MMP-9, TIMP-2, and MPO.Journal of endodontics 07/2013; 39(7):879-82. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In most humans, obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory reaction occurring in several organ tissues, including the adipose tissue. Infiltration of bone marrow derived leukocytes (granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes) into expanding adipose depots appears to be an integral component of inflammation in obesity. Circulating leukocytes invade organ tissues mainly through post-capillary venules in the microcirculation. The endothelium of the post-capillary venules acts as a gatekeeper to leukocyte adhesion and extravasation by displacing on its luminal surface adhesion molecules that bind the adhesive receptors expressed on circulating leukocytes. Several studies investigating the impact of obesity on the microcirculation have demonstrated the occurrence of microvascular dysfunction in experimental animal model of obesity, as well as in obese humans. To date though, working hypotheses and study designs have favored the view that microvascular alterations are secondary to adipose tissue dysfunction. Indeed, a significant amount of data exists in the scientific literature to support the concept that microvascular dysfunction may precede and cause adipose tissue inflammation in obesity. Through review of key published data, this article prospectively presents the concept that in response to nutrients overload the vascular endothelium of the microcirculation acutely activates inflammatory pathways that initiate infiltration of leukocytes in visceral adipose tissue, well before weight gain and overt obesity. The anatomical and physiological heterogeneity of different microcirculations is also discussed toward the understanding of how obesity induces different inflammatory phenotypes in visceral and subcutaneous fat depots.Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 02/2013; · 4.58 Impact Factor