Effects of transforming growth factor beta1 and dexamethasone on the growth and chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stromal cells.
ABSTRACT The effects of soluble mediators and medium supplements commonly used to induce chondrogenic differentiation in different cell culture systems were investigated to define their dose-response profiles and potentially synergistic effects on the chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived adult stromal (ADAS) cells. Human ADAS cells were suspended within alginate beads and cultured in basal medium with insulin, transferrin, and selenious acid (ITS+) or fetal bovine serum (FBS) and treated with different doses and combinations of TGF-beta1 (0, 1, and 10 ng/mL) and dexamethasone (0, 10, and 100 nM). Cell growth and chondrogenic differentiation were assessed by measuring DNA content, protein and proteoglycan synthesis rates, and proteoglycan accumulation. The combination of ITS+ and TGF-beta1 significantly increased cell proliferation. Protein synthesis rates were increased by TGF-beta1 and dexamethasone in the presence of ITS+ or FBS. While TGF-beta1 significantly increased proteoglycan synthesis and accumulation by 1.5- to 2-fold in the presence of FBS, such effects were suppressed by dexamethasone. In summary, the combination of TGF-beta1 and ITS+ stimulated cell growth and synthesis of proteins and proteoglycans by human ADAS cells. The addition of dexamethasone appeared to amplify protein synthesis but had suppressive effects on proteoglycan synthesis and accumulation.
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are promising cell sources for regenerative therapies due to their multipotency and ready availability, but their application can be complicated by patient-specific factors like age or illness. MSCs have been investigated for the treatment of many musculoskeletal disorders, including osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Due to the prevalence of these diseases in older populations, researchers have studied how aging affects MSC properties and have found that proliferation and differentiation potential are impaired. However, these effects have never been compared among MSCs isolated from multiple tissue sources in the same, healthy donor. Revealing differences in how MSCs are affected by age could help identify an optimal cell source for musculoskeletal therapies targeting older patients. MSCs were isolated from young and old rabbit bone marrow, muscle, and adipose tissue. Cell yield and viability were quantified after isolation procedures, and expansion properties were assessed using assays for proliferation, senescence, and colony formation. Multipotency was also examined using lineage-specific stains and spectrophotometry of metabolites. Results were compared between age groups and among MSC sources. Results showed that MSCs are differentially influenced by aging, with bone marrow-derived stem cells having impaired proliferation, senescence, and chondrogenic response, whereas muscle-derived stem cells and adipose-derived stem cells exhibited no negative effects. While age reduced overall cell yield and adipogenic potential of all MSC populations, osteogenesis and clonogenicity remained unchanged. These findings indicate the importance of age as a factor when designing cell-based therapies for older patients.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115963. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115963 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the influence of sodium alginate in the chondrogenic differentiation processes of adult stem cells, and its possible role as a non-penetrating cryopreservation agent for long periods of cell storage. In order to achieve this goal, stem cells from adipose tissue were isolated and cultured in an alginate three-dimensional matrix and subsequently cryopreserved during different time periods. The influence of alginate was evaluated on the morphology of the encapsulated cells and, it was found that cells went from having a fibroblastoid morphology to a rounded morphology. Additionally, after staining with Safranin O, proteoglycans were found in the encapsulated cells, suggesting that this cell culture material provides the generation of a typical extracellular matrix of chondrocyte tissue. The viability of cells after being cryopreserved in the alginate matrixes during different time periods had a lower viability in most of the cases in comparison with the cells normally cryopreserved. Results suggest that sodium alginate is a good chondrogenic differentiation inducer, but not so useful for the cryopreservation process of adult stem cells. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2011; 2 (2): 201-209
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ABSTRACT: Microencapsulating stem cells in injectable microbeads can enhance delivery and localization, but their ability to act as growth factor production sources is still unknown. To address this concern, growth factor mRNA levels and production from alginate microbeads with encapsulated human adipose stem cells (ASC microbeads) cultured in both growth and chondrogenic media (GM and CM) were measured over a two week period. Human ASCs in microbeads were either commercially purchased (Lonza) or isolated from six human donors and compared to human ASCs on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). The effects of crosslinking and alginate compositions on growth factor mRNA levels and production were also determined. Secretion profiles of IGF-I, TGF-β3 and VEGF-A from commercial human ASC microbeads were linear and at a significantly higher rate than TCPS cultures over two weeks. For human ASCs derived from different donors, microencapsulation increased pthlh and both IGF-I and TGF-β3 secretion. CM decreased fgf2 and VEGF-A secretion from ASC microbeads derived from the same donor population. Crosslinking microbeads in BaCl2 instead of CaCl2 did not eliminate microencapsulation's beneficial effects, but did decrease IGF-I production. Increasing the guluronate content of the alginate microbead increased IGF-I retention. Decreasing alginate molecular weight eliminated the effects microencapsulation had on increasing IGF-I secretion. This study demonstrated that microencapsulation can enhance chondrogenic growth factor production and that chondrogenic medium treatment can decrease angiogenic growth factor production from ASCs, making these cells a potential source for paracrine factors that can stimulate cartilage regeneration.