Protective effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker on cerebral circulation independent of blood pressure.
ABSTRACT Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker (ARB) has been reported to modify hypertensive cerebrovascular changes; however, it is not clear whether its protective effects are independent of blood pressure. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of AT1R-mediated signals in cerebral circulation by the chronic treatment with telmisartan, an ARB, at a dose that did not lower the blood pressure. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were treated for 4 weeks from 16 weeks of ages with telmisartan (SHR-L: 0.3 mg/kg/day, SHR-H: 3 mg/kg/day, WKY-H: 3 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (SHR-V, WKY-V). Superoxide measured by a chemiluminescent assay or dihydroethidium fluorescence and vascular morphology were examined for the thoracic aorta (Ao), common carotid (CCA), middle cerebral (MCA) and basilar arteries (BA). After 4 weeks of treatment, the blood pressure significantly declined in SHR-H but not in SHR-L in comparison to SHR-V. The lower limit of cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation, evaluated by hemorrhagic hypotension, was significantly lower in SHR-L and SHR-H than SHR-V. In both SHR and WKY, the superoxide levels in the arteries were significantly attenuated by both doses of ARB. ARB also reversed vascular hypertrophy in Ao, CCA and BA and the inward remodeling in MCA. These results suggest that chronic treatment with telmisartan may therefore improve CBF autoregulation with a restoration of the vascular structure and an attenuation of superoxide generation, even at a dose that does not lower the blood pressure.
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ABSTRACT: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that stimulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADH/NADPH) oxidase is involved in increased vascular superoxide anion (*O(2)(-)) production in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The study was performed in 16-week-old and 30-week-old normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY(16) and WKY(30), respectively) and in 16-week-old and 30-week-old SHR (SHR(16) and SHR(30), respectively). In addition, 16-week-old SHR were treated with oral irbesartan (average dose 20 mg/kg per day) for 14 weeks (SHR(30)-I). Aortic NADH/NADPH oxidase activity was determined by use of chemiluminescence with lucigenin. The expression of p22phox messenger RNA was assessed by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Vascular responses to acetylcholine were determined by isometric tension studies. Aortic wall structure was studied, determining the media thickness and the cross-sectional area by morphometric analysis. Whereas systolic blood pressure was significantly increased in the 2 groups of hypertensive animals compared with their normotensive controls, no differences were observed in systolic blood pressure between SHR(30) and SHR(16). No other differences in the parameters measured were found between WKY(16) and SHR(16). In SHR(30) compared with WKY(30), we found significantly greater p22phox mRNA level, NADH/NADPH-driven *O(2)(-) production, media thickness, and cross-sectional area and an impaired vasodilation in response to acetylcholine. Treated SHR had similar NADH/NADPH oxidase activity and p22phox expression as the WKY(30) group. The vascular functional and morphological parameters were improved in SHR(30)-I. These findings suggest that an association exists between p22phox gene overexpression and NADH/NADPH overactivity in the aortas of adult SHR. Enhanced NADH/NADPH oxidase-dependent *O(2)(-) production may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy in this genetic model of hypertension.Hypertension 06/2000; 35(5):1055-61. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species are believed to be an important determinant of vascular growth. We examined effects of genetic deficiency of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD; SOD1) on structure and function of cerebral arterioles. Systemic arterial pressure (SAP) and cross-sectional area of the vessel wall (CSA) and superoxide (O2-) levels (relative fluorescence of ethidium [ETH]) were examined in maximally dilated cerebral arterioles in mice with targeted disruption of one (+/-) or both (-/-) genes encoding CuZnSOD. Wild-type littermates served as controls. Vasodilator responses were tested in separate groups of mice. CSA and ETH were significantly increased (P<0.05) in both CuZnSOD+/- and CuZnSOD-/- mice (CSA=435+/-24 and 541+/-48 microm2; ETH=18+/-1 and 34+/-2%) compared with wild-type mice (CSA=327+/-28 microm2; ETH=6%). Furthermore, the increases in CSA and ETH relative to wild-type mice were significantly greater (P<0.05) in CuZnSOD-/- mice than in CuZnSOD+/- mice (CSA=108 versus 214 microm2; ETH=12 versus 28%). In addition, dilatation of cerebral arterioles in response to acetylcholine, but not nitroprusside, was reduced by approximately 25% in CuZnSOD+/- (P<0.075) and 50% in CuZnSOD-/- mice (P<0.05) compared with wild-type mice. Cerebral arterioles in CuZnSOD+/- and CuZnSOD-/- mice undergo marked hypertrophy. These findings provide the first direct evidence in any blood vessel that CuZnSOD normally inhibits vascular hypertrophy suggesting that CuZnSOD plays a major role in regulation of cerebral vascular growth. The findings also suggest a gene dosing effect of CuZnSOD for increases in O2-, induction of cerebral vascular hypertrophy and impaired endothelium-dependent dilatation.Stroke 08/2006; 37(7):1850-5. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The factors that predispose to the accelerated organ injury that accompanies the hypertensive syndrome have remained speculative and without a firm experimental basis. Indirect evidence has suggested that a key feature may be related to an enhanced oxygen radical production. The purpose of this study was to refine and use a technique to visualize evidence of spontaneous microvascular oxidative stress in vivo in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) compared with its normotensive control, the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY). We investigated the effects of adrenal glucocorticoids on the microvascular oxidative stress sequence. The mesentery was superfused with hydroethidine, a reduced, nonfluorescent precursor of ethidium bromide. In the presence of oxidative challenge, hydroethidine is transformed intracellularly into the fluorescent compound ethidium bromide, which binds to DNA and can be detected by virtue of its red fluorescence. The fluorescent light emission from freshly exteriorized and otherwise unstimulated mesentery microvessels was recorded by digital microscopy. The number of ethidium bromide-positive nuclei along the arteriolar and venular walls in SHR was found to be significantly increased above the level exhibited by WKY. The elevation in ethidium bromide fluorescence in SHR arterioles could be attenuated by a synthetic glucocorticoid inhibitor and in rats subjected to adrenalectomy. The administration of glucocorticoids after adrenalectomy by injection of dexamethasone restored the oxidative reaction in SHR arterioles. Treatment with dimethylthiourea and with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor attenuated the superoxide formation. Although a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) enhanced the ethidium bromide staining in WKY, it did not affect that in SHR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Hypertension 06/1995; 25(5):1083-9. · 6.87 Impact Factor