Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker (ARB) has been reported to modify hypertensive cerebrovascular changes; however, it is not clear whether its protective effects are independent of blood pressure. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of AT1R-mediated signals in cerebral circulation by the chronic treatment with telmisartan, an ARB, at a dose that did not lower the blood pressure. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were treated for 4 weeks from 16 weeks of ages with telmisartan (SHR-L: 0.3 mg/kg/day, SHR-H: 3 mg/kg/day, WKY-H: 3 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (SHR-V, WKY-V). Superoxide measured by a chemiluminescent assay or dihydroethidium fluorescence and vascular morphology were examined for the thoracic aorta (Ao), common carotid (CCA), middle cerebral (MCA) and basilar arteries (BA). After 4 weeks of treatment, the blood pressure significantly declined in SHR-H but not in SHR-L in comparison to SHR-V. The lower limit of cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation, evaluated by hemorrhagic hypotension, was significantly lower in SHR-L and SHR-H than SHR-V. In both SHR and WKY, the superoxide levels in the arteries were significantly attenuated by both doses of ARB. ARB also reversed vascular hypertrophy in Ao, CCA and BA and the inward remodeling in MCA. These results suggest that chronic treatment with telmisartan may therefore improve CBF autoregulation with a restoration of the vascular structure and an attenuation of superoxide generation, even at a dose that does not lower the blood pressure.
"Aldosterone and angiotensin-II (Ang-II) have been implicated in pressure-independent remodeling of the resistance vasculature. Interestingly , these agents increase oxidative stress (Kumai et al., 2008; Briones et al., 2009). Furthermore, increases in wall stress, as consequence of reduced lumen diameter, activate intracellular cascades that culminate in the production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Laurindo et al., 1994; De Keulenaer et al., 1998; Paravicini and Touyz, 2006; Touyz, 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension and stroke. The effects of ROS on cerebral vessels from hypertensive rats have not been studied. We hypothesized that tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, would prevent middle cerebral artery (MCA) remodeling in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Six-week-old male SHRSP were treated with tempol (1mM) for 6weeks. The MCA was then removed and mounted in a pressure myograph to study tone generation, vessel reactivity, and passive vessel structure. Data are shown as mean±SEM, tempol vs. control. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were decreased by tempol treatment (14.15±1.46 vs. 20.55±1.25nM of malondialdehyde [MDA]/ml, p=0.008). Maximum serotonin-induced constriction was increased by tempol treatment, without changes in dilation to adenosine diphosphate or tone generation. At an intralumenal pressure of 80mmHg, tempol caused a dramatic increase in the MCA lumen diameter (246±5 vs. 207±3μm, p<0.001), outer diameter (281±5 vs. 241±3μm, p<0.001), lumen cross-sectional area, and vessel cross-sectional area. Collagen IV mRNA expressions were increased by 2.4-fold after tempol treatment. These results suggest that ROS are involved in the remodeling of the cerebral vasculature of SHRSP and that ROS scavenging can attenuate this process.
Microvascular Research 12/2010; 80(3):445-52. DOI:10.1016/j.mvr.2010.06.004 · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the possibility that continuous activation of the human brain renin-angiotensin system causes cognitive impairment, using human renin (hRN) and human angiotensinogen (hANG) gene chimeric transgenic (Tg) mice. Cognitive function was evaluated by the shuttle avoidance test once a week from 10 to 20 weeks of age. The avoidance rate in wild-type mice gradually increased. In contrast, the avoidance rate in chimeric hRN/hANG-Tg mice also increased; however, no further increase in avoidance rate was observed from 14 weeks of age, and it decreased thereafter. Cerebral surface blood flow was markedly reduced in 20-week-old hRN/hANG-Tg mice. Superoxide anion production in the brain was already higher in 10-week-old hRN/hANG-Tg mice and further increased thereafter with an increase in NADPH oxidase activity. Moreover, expression of p47(phox) and Nox4 in the brain of hRN/hANG-Tg mice also increased. Administration of an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, olmesartan (5.0 mg/kg per day), attenuated the increase in blood pressure and ameliorated cognitive decline with enhancement of cerebral surface blood flow and a reduction of oxidative stress in hRN/hANG-Tg mice. On the other hand, hydralazine (0.5 mg/kg per day) did not improve the decrease in avoidance rate, and did not influence cerebral surface blood flow or oxidative stress in hRN/hANG-Tg mice, in spite of a similar reduction of blood pressure to that by olmesartan. Moreover, we observed that treatment with Tempol improved impaired cognitive function in hRN/hANG-Tg mice. These results suggest that continuous activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system impairs cognitive function via stimulation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor with a decrease in cerebral surface blood flow and an increase in oxidative stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The importance of lowering blood pressure for reducing the risk of stroke is well established. However, not all the benefits of antihypertensive treatments in stroke can be accounted for by reductions in BP and there may be differences between antihypertensive classes as to which provides optimal protection. Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, such as amlodipine, and angiotensin receptor blockers, such as valsartan, represent the two antihypertensive drug classes with the strongest supportive data for the prevention of stroke. Therefore, when combination therapy is required, a combination of these two antihypertensive classes represents a logical approach.
Vascular Health and Risk Management 02/2009; 5:593-605. DOI:10.2147/VHRM.S6203
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