Effect of femto to nano molar concentrations of prostaglandin analogues on pregnant rat uterine contractility.
ABSTRACT Prostaglandins are bioactive lipids and important mediators of uterine relaxation as well as contraction during pregnancy and labour. E series prostaglandins may directly contract or relax myometrium in a dose-dependent manner, with the relaxatory effects mediated through the prostanoid receptors EP(2) and EP(4). The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological effects of prostaglandin analogues on isolated pregnant rat uterine contractility, at 10(-15) to 10(-9) M concentrations. Uterine strips from rats at 19 days of gestation were set up in organ baths at 37 degrees C, bathed in Krebs buffer and gassed with 95% O(2)/5% CO(2). Spontaneous contractions were recorded via a force transducer. Concentration ranges of 10(-15)-10(-9) M of PGE(2), PGF(2alpha) and a range of prostaglandin analogues were applied non-cumulatively to the tissues. Spontaneous contractions were recorded for 12 min post dose. Amplitude, frequency, baseline tone and percent contractility over 10 min periods were analysed. PGE(2), butaprost, 9-keto fluprostenol, 11-keto fluprostenol, 9-keto fluprostenol isopropyl ester, AL8810 and 15(S)-15-methyl PGE(2) all caused a decrease in percent contractility (P<0.05). These agents, plus Delta(12)PGJ(2) and 9-deoxy-9-methylene-16,16-dimethyl PGE(2), also decreased frequency of contraction (P<0.05). Only PGE(2), PGF(2alpha) and 11-keto fluprostenol decreased baseline tone (P<0.05). The lower concentrations of prostaglandins used here mediated inhibition of spontaneous contractility of pregnant rat myometrium. Use of selective agonists suggested that the prostanoid receptors EP(2) and DP(2) are responsible for this relaxatory effect.
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ABSTRACT: In this review we discuss our current understanding of the cellular basis of uterine contractility, highlighting those areas requiring further study. It is clear that the basic processes of excitation-contraction coupling lie within the myometrial cell, and that these may be modified by agonists. Pacemaker activity, however, remains a mystery. The contribution of extracellular calcium entry to contraction is shown to be vital, whilst the role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum remains controversial. Much current experimental focus is on pathways controlling and regulating contraction, and we discuss sensitisation mechanisms and question their role in intact uterine preparations. Experimental Physiology (2001) 86.2, 239-246.Experimental Physiology 04/2001; 86(2):239-46. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostanoid EP receptor agonists relaxed cloprostenol-stimulated contraction of human non-pregnant myometrium in vitro with pEC50 values of (n = 4): prostaglandin E2, 7.8+/-0.2 > 1-OH prostaglandin E1, 7.2+/-0.3 > misoprostol, 6.6+/-0.1 > 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2, 6.3+/-0.7 > butaprost, 5.7+/-0.3 > 11-deoxy prostaglandin E1, 5.5+/-0.2 = AH13205 ((+)-trans-2-[4-(1hydroxyhexyl)phenyl]-5-oxocyclopentaneheptano ic acid), 5.5+/-0.2. The EP4 receptor antagonist AH23848B ([1alpha(z), 2beta5alpha]-(+/-)-7-[5-[[(1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methoxy]-2-(4-morph olinyl)-3-oxo-cyclopentyl]-4-heptenoic acid) (29 microM) had no effect on concentration-effect curves to the EP receptor agonists. The mixed prostanoid receptor antagonist AH6809 (6-isopropoxy-9-oxaxanthene-2-carboxylic acid) competitively antagonised prostaglandin E2 with a pA2 of 5.6+/-0.2. AH6809 (42 microM) antagonised misoprostol, 11-deoxy prostaglandin E1, and the prostanoid DP receptor agonist BW245C (5-(6-carboxyhexyl)-1-(3-cyclohexyl-3-hydroxypropyl)hydantoin) with apparent pA2 values of 5.6+/-0.3, 5.1+/-0.9 and 5.9+/-0.4 (n = 4), respectively, but was ineffective against the IP receptor agonist cicaprost (n = 4). The prostanoid DP receptor antagonist BW A868C (3-benzyl-5-(6-carboxyhexyl)-1-(2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxyethylamino)h ydantoin) (50 nM) had no effect on responses to prostaglandin E2 or misoprostol. The presence of an AH6809-sensitive, AH23848B- and BW A868C-insensitive mechanism is consistent with the hypothesis that inhibitory EP receptor agonists cause relaxation of human non-pregnant myometrium by an EP2 receptor-mediated process.European Journal of Pharmacology 07/1999; 378(1):99-108. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays a key role in the maintenance of human pregnancy and labour onset. PGE2 can elicit diverse actions within the uterus depending on the PGE2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4) expressed. By signalling through different intracellular pathways the EP receptors may inhibit or promote smooth muscle contractility. Nine different EP3 receptor splice variants have been identified with divergent signalling pathways. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were utilized to identify and localize EP receptor isoforms within the upper segment (US) and lower segment (LS) myometrium. EP1 was significantly increased in the LS myometrium with term labour. EP3 (and EP3 splice variants EP3I(1b), EP3II, EP3III and EP3IV) was down-regulated in pregnancy (US and/or LS) with a further decrease at term labour in the LS. Overall, expression of EP2 was significantly higher in the LS while EP3 was significantly higher in the US. No significant EP4 changes were observed. Consistent with the RT-PCR results, immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence and, interestingly, showed nuclear localization of EP receptors in the myometrium with higher EP1 expression and lower expression of EP3. The differential regulation of EP receptors within the myometrium indicates that they may play a role in controlling the onset and maintenance of human labour.Molecular Human Reproduction 05/2005; 11(4):279-87. · 4.54 Impact Factor