Sonography of the clitoris.
ABSTRACT The prevalence of invasive procedures in diagnosing female sexual dysfunctions and pathologies is high. There is a need for a less invasive evaluation tool and medical imaging of the clitoris may be a solution. The clitoris has already been studied with nuclear magnetic resonance but there are very few sonographic 2D and 3D studies despite the fact that it is a simple, noninvasive, and inexpensive method.
This study aims at determining the feasibility of using ultrasound (US) techniques to image the clitoris in sufficient detail to permit evaluation of anatomy for possible use in study.
The ultrasounds were performed in five healthy volunteers with the Voluson GE Sonography system (GE Healthcare Ultrasound, Zipf, Austria), using one 12-MHz flat probe.
The clitoral body's diameter, the length of the raphe.
The three planes-the cross-section, sagittal section, and coronal section-were revealed making it possible to study the entire organ.
The sonography is a simple, inexpensive, noninvasive mean which might help for the evaluation of this organ.
- SourceAvailable from: Barry Komisaruk
Article: Female orgasm(s): one, two, several.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is general agreement that it is possible to have an orgasm thru the direct simulation of the external clitoris. In contrast, the possibility of achieving climax during penetration has been controversial. Six scientists with different experimental evidence debate the existence of the vaginally activated orgasm (VAO). To give reader of The Journal of Sexual Medicine sufficient data to form her/his own opinion on an important topic of female sexuality. Expert #1, the Controversy's section Editor, together with Expert #2, reviewed data from the literature demonstrating the anatomical possibility for the VAO. Expert #3 presents validating women's reports of pleasurable sexual responses and adaptive significance of the VAO. Echographic dynamic evidence induced Expert # 4 to describe one single orgasm, obtained from stimulation of either the external or internal clitoris, during penetration. Expert #5 reviewed his elegant experiments showing the uniquely different sensory responses to clitoral, vaginal, and cervical stimulation. Finally, the last Expert presented findings on the psychological scenario behind VAO. The assumption that women may experience only the clitoral, external orgasm is not based on the best available scientific evidence.Journal of Sexual Medicine 04/2012; 9(4):956-65. · 3.51 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review, with 21 figures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male's glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause "vaginal" orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles. Because of the engorgement with blood during sexual arousal, the labia minora become turgid, doubling or tripling in thickness. The corpus spongiosum of the female urethra becomes congested during sexual arousal; therefore, male erection equals erection of the female erectile organs. The correct anatomical term to describe the erectile tissues responsible for female orgasm is the female penis. Vaginal orgasm and the G-spot do not exist. These claims are found in numerous articles that have been written by Addiego F, Whipple B, Jannini E, Buisson O, O'Connell H, Brody S, Ostrzenski A, and others, have no scientific basis. Orgasm is an intense sensation of pleasure achieved by stimulation of erogenous zones. Women do not have a refractory period after each orgasm and can, therefore, experience multiple orgasms. Clitoral sexual response and the female orgasm are not affected by aging. Sexologists should define having sex/love making when orgasm occurs for both partners with or without vaginal intercourse. Clin. Anat., 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Clinical Anatomy 11/2012; · 1.16 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Women describe at least two types of orgasms: clitoral and vaginal. However, the differences, if any, are a matter of controversy. In order to clarify the functional anatomy of this sexual pleasure, most frequently achieved through clitoral stimulation, we used sonography with the aim of visualizing the movements of the clitorourethrovaginal (CUV) complex both during external, direct stimulation of the clitoris and during vaginal stimulation. The ultrasounds were performed in three healthy volunteers with the General Electric® Voluson® sonography system (General Electric Healthcare, Vélizy, France), using a 12-MHz flat probe and a vaginal probe. We used functional sonography of the stimulated clitoris either during manual self-stimulation of the external clitoris or during vaginal penetration with a wet tampon. Functional and anatomic description, based on bidimensional ultrasounds, of the clitoris and CUV complex, as well as color Doppler signal indicating speed of venous blood flow, during arousal obtained by external or internal stimulation. The sagittal scans obtained during external stimulation and vaginal penetration demonstrated that the root of the clitoris is not involved with external clitoral stimulation. In contrast, during vaginal stimulation, because of the movements and displacements, the whole CUV complex and the clitoral roots in particular are involved, showing functional differences depending on the type of stimulation. The color signal indicating flow speed in the veins mirrored the anatomical changes. Despite a common assumption that there is only one type of female orgasm, we may infer, on the basis of our findings, that the different reported perceptions from these two types of stimulation can be explained by the different parts of the clitoris (external and internal) and CUV complex that are involved. Buisson O and Jannini EA. Pilot echographic study of the differences in clitoral involvement following clitoral or vaginal sexual stimulation. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.Journal of Sexual Medicine 08/2013; · 3.51 Impact Factor