Sonography of the Clitoris
ABSTRACT The prevalence of invasive procedures in diagnosing female sexual dysfunctions and pathologies is high. There is a need for a less invasive evaluation tool and medical imaging of the clitoris may be a solution. The clitoris has already been studied with nuclear magnetic resonance but there are very few sonographic 2D and 3D studies despite the fact that it is a simple, noninvasive, and inexpensive method.
This study aims at determining the feasibility of using ultrasound (US) techniques to image the clitoris in sufficient detail to permit evaluation of anatomy for possible use in study.
The ultrasounds were performed in five healthy volunteers with the Voluson GE Sonography system (GE Healthcare Ultrasound, Zipf, Austria), using one 12-MHz flat probe.
The clitoral body's diameter, the length of the raphe.
The three planes-the cross-section, sagittal section, and coronal section-were revealed making it possible to study the entire organ.
The sonography is a simple, inexpensive, noninvasive mean which might help for the evaluation of this organ.
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ABSTRACT: This review, with 21 figures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male's glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause "vaginal" orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles. Because of the engorgement with blood during sexual arousal, the labia minora become turgid, doubling or tripling in thickness. The corpus spongiosum of the female urethra becomes congested during sexual arousal; therefore, male erection equals erection of the female erectile organs. The correct anatomical term to describe the erectile tissues responsible for female orgasm is the female penis. Vaginal orgasm and the G-spot do not exist. These claims are found in numerous articles that have been written by Addiego F, Whipple B, Jannini E, Buisson O, O'Connell H, Brody S, Ostrzenski A, and others, have no scientific basis. Orgasm is an intense sensation of pleasure achieved by stimulation of erogenous zones. Women do not have a refractory period after each orgasm and can, therefore, experience multiple orgasms. Clitoral sexual response and the female orgasm are not affected by aging. Sexologists should define having sex/love making when orgasm occurs for both partners with or without vaginal intercourse. Clin. Anat., 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Clinical Anatomy 01/2013; 26(1). DOI:10.1002/ca.22177 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women, likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data that were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse.Hormones and Behavior 12/2010; 59(5):780-92. DOI:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.12.004 · 4.51 Impact Factor
Article: Chirurgie sexuelle chez la femme[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: La chirurgie sexuelle garde une réputation sulfureuse, hésitant souvent entre chirurgie fonctionnelle et simple chirurgie esthétique. Les demandes sont néanmoins croissantes et les techniques proposées nombreuses. Si certaines sont validées et semblent légitimes et efficaces chez des femmes gênées et honnêtement sélectionnées (nymphoplastie, correction d’une béance vulvaire, réfection d’hymen), d’autres sont beaucoup plus contestables, ne reposant sur aucun fondement scientifique et abusant trop souvent de la fragilité de certaines femmes ou exploitant une «fausse image» de normalité esthétique (rajeunissement vaginal, ampliation du point G). Quel que soit le type de prise en charge proposée, il est, de toute façon, essentiel de prendre en compte la dimension psychologique. Female sexual surgery still has a questionable reputation, hesitating between aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Nevertheless, requests are increasing and there are many procedures available. Some of them are valid and have been shown to be effective in selected women with bothersome symptoms (labioplasty, colpoperineoplasty, hymenoplasty). Others are debatable, with no scientific assessment, and take advantage of some women’s fragility or exploit the “false picture” of aesthetically “normal” female genitalia (vaginal rejuvenation, G spot amplification). Whatever management is offered, it is important to take into consideration the psychological aspects.Pelvi-périnéologie 06/2008; 3(2):127-135. DOI:10.1007/s11608-008-0195-8 · 0.03 Impact Factor