Does the oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cause thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin oxidation?
ABSTRACT The thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin system comprises a redox-regulated antioxidant family in human lung; its significance, regulation, or oxidation has not been evaluated in smoking-related lung diseases. Here, we present the expression of the thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin system in lung biopsies from normal lung (n = 14), smokers (n = 21), and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, n = 38), and assess the possible inactivation/oxidation of this system by nonreducing Western blotting, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Our study shows that the thiol status of the Trx/Prx-system can be modulated in vitro, but it appears to have high resistance against the oxidative stress in COPD.
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ABSTRACT: Thioredoxins, glutaredoxins, and peroxiredoxins have been characterized as electron donors, guards of the intracellular redox state, and 'antioxidants'. Today, these redoxins are increasingly recognized for their specific role in redox signaling. Redoxin research is by no means 'old-fashioned'; on the contrary, the number of publications on the topic continues to increase exponentially. This review summarizes the almost 50 years of redoxin research, focusing primarily on recent data from vertebrates and mammals. The role of Trx family and related proteins in redox signaling is discussed by looking at reaction mechanisms, reversible oxidative post-translational modifications of proteins, and characterized interaction partners of the redoxins. On basis of this analysis, the importance of the redoxins for human health is addressed in the second part of this review, i.e. their potential impact and functions in different cell types, metabolic and signaling pathways, and various pathological conditions.Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 11/2013; 19(13):1539-1605. DOI:10.1089/ars.2012.4599 · 7.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is known to have negative effects on tissue repair and healing. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of nicotine in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). After nicotine treatment, MSCs became pyknotic, vacuoles appeared in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and the nuclear boundary became fuzzy as observed using atomic force microscopy. Cell proliferation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05 for all concentrations). The proportion of apoptotic MSCs was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. The mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Nicotine-treated MSCs had a significantly higher G0/G1 ratio (P < 0.05). Peptide mass fingerprinting identified 27 proteins that were differentially expressed between MSCs with and without nicotine treatment. These nicotine exerted toxic effects on MSCs are likely related, at least in part, to the altered expression of multiple proteins that are essential to the health and proliferation of these cells.Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 04/2014; 28(4). DOI:10.1002/jbt.21551 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Long-term treatment with ambroxol (ABX), a bronchial expectorant, was found to prevent acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). The underlying mechanism remains unclear. To address this, we have investigated the effect of ABX on critical antioxidant proteins thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) that are decreased in patients with AECOPD. Trx, TrxR and NADP(H) form Trx system, which is involved in regulating numerous oxidative stress-related events. In human bronchial epithelial cells, treatment with ABX from 0 to 200 μM gradually increased mRNA and protein levels of TrxR/Trx. At these ABX concentrations, TrxR activity was elevated progressively, whereas Trx activity exhibited a dose-dependent biphasic response, increasing at 50 and 75 μM, but decreasing at ABX over 150 μM. Pre-treatment with 75 μM ABX enhanced the capacity of the cells to eliminate reactive oxygen species, which was largely prevented by knockdown of cytosolic Trx (hTrx1). In a purified system, ABX shortened the initial lag phase during the reduction of insulin disulfide by Trx system. Pre-treatment of NADPH-reduced TrxR with ABX caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in thiolate/selenolate species, i.e. the catalytically active form of TrxR. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that the reduction of H2O2 by TrxR or Trx system were enhanced by 100 or 200 μM ABX. When hTrx1 was mixed with ABX in a molar ratio of 1:1 to 1:100 (which could occur in human plasma), changes in intrinsic Trp fluorescence occurred, and the response of reduced hTrx1 was especially remarkable. These data reveal an ABX-sensing mechanism of TrxR/Trx. We therefore conclude that the antioxidant actions of ABX at physiological concentrations are, at least partially, mediated by TrxR and/or Trx system.Biochimie 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.biochi.2013.09.024 · 3.12 Impact Factor