All in the Mind's Eye? Anger Rumination and Reappraisal

Department of Psychology, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Impact Factor: 5.08). 02/2008; 94(1):133-45. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.94.1.133
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Research on rumination has demonstrated that compared with distraction, rumination intensifies and prolongs negative emotion. However, rumination and distraction differ both in what one thinks about and how one thinks about it. Do the negative outcomes of rumination result from how people think about negative events or simply that they think about them at all? To address this question, participants in 2 studies recalled a recent anger-provoking event and then thought about it in 1 of 2 ways: by ruminating or by reappraising. The authors examined the impact of these strategies on subsequent ratings of anger experience (Study 1) as well as on perseverative thinking and physiological responding over time (Study 2). Relative to reappraisal, rumination led to greater anger experience, more cognitive perseveration, and greater sympathetic nervous system activation. These findings provide compelling new evidence that how one thinks about an emotional event can shape the emotional response one has.

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Available from: Frank H. Wilhelm, Jul 29, 2015
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    • "The purpose of the present study was to examine neural activation during cognitive reappraisal in ASD. Cognitive reappraisal is a form of consciously deployed ER that, in nonclinical samples, effectively modulates subjective responses via a reinterpretation of the meaning of emotional challenges (Butler et al. 2006; Ochsner et al. 2002; Ray et al. 2008). Reappraisal encompasses both the down-regulation (i.e., attenuation) of negative emotional responses and the up-regulation (i.e., enhancement) of positive emotional responses (Gross 2013). "
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    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10803-015-2359-z · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "A este respecto la VFC tiene un componente emocional muy significativo. En esta misma línea de investigación existen una gran cantidad de estudios que avalan la correlación entre la respuesta cardiovascular y las emociones al margen de la VFC, tales como la tensión arterial, contractilidad ventricular, etc (Memedovic et al, 2010; Ray et al, 2008). Denson et al (2011) demostraron como existía una correlación entre la VFC y la ira o provocación y otros estudios, en este mismo sentido, determinan que una baja VFC define (Appelhans y Luecken, 2006) problemas de gestión emocional. "
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    • "Greater trait mindfulness, but not habitual reappraisal, predicted greater reductions in sadness across conditions. The finding that mindfulness and reappraisal were each more effective than no instruction in reducing sadness is consistent with findings of previous research (Erisman & Roemer, 2010; Grisham et al., 2009; Gross, 1998; Ray et al., 2008; Singer & Dobson, 2007). The finding that both strategies resulted in comparable decreases in sad mood corresponds to Wolgast et al. (2011)'s finding, but differs from other studies' findings demonstrating an advantage for reappraisal over mindfulness (Hofmann et al., 2009; Szasz et al., 2011). "
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