Injuries sustained by high school rugby players in the United States, 2005-2006.
ABSTRACT To describe the incidence and characteristics of injuries among US high school rugby players and to identify possible injury risk factors.
Descriptive epidemiological study.
The 2005 and 2006 US high school rugby seasons.
A convenience sample of 121 boys' and girls' US high school rugby clubs. Main Exposures Exposure to playing rugby.
Incidence, characteristics, and risk factors of rugby injuries.
Enrolled clubs reported 594 injuries during 113,641 total high school rugby athletic exposures (81,627 practice exposures and 32,014 match exposures). Rugby injury rates were 5.2 injuries per 1000 total athletic exposures, 1.3 injuries per 1000 practice exposures, and 15.2 injuries per 1000 match exposures. The mean age of the injured athletes was 16.5 years (SD, 1.2 years; range, 13-19 years) and 87.0% were male. The most commonly injured body sites were the head (21.7%), ankle (13.3%), and shoulder (12.8%). Fractures (16.0%), concussions (15.8%), and ligament sprains (incomplete tears) (15.7%) were the most common diagnoses. Practice and competition injuries were similar with respect to the proportion of concussions and head, shoulder, ankle, and knee injuries. More than half of all injuries resulted from being tackled (30.8%) and tackling (28.8%).
As the popularity of youth rugby continues to grow in the United States, increasing numbers of physicians and certified athletic trainers will find themselves treating rugby-related injuries and answering questions from parents about the comparative safety of rugby. To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study to describe injury rates and identify possible injury risk factors among US high school rugby players.
- SourceAvailable from: Astrid Junge[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In reviewing the literature on sports injuries, few studies could be found in which exposure related incidences of injury in different types of sport were compared. These studies indicated that ice hockey, handball, basketball, soccer, and rugby are popular team sports with a relatively high risk of injury. The aim of the study was to compare the characteristics and incidence of injuries in male youth amateur soccer and rugby players. This prospective cohort study comprised an initial baseline examination to ascertain the characteristics of the players and their level of performance, and a one season observation period during which a physician visited the team weekly and documented all occurring injuries. Twelve soccer and 10 rugby school teams with male amateur players aged 14-18 years were selected for the study. 145 soccer and 123 rugby players could be followed up over one season. Comparison of the incidence of soccer and rugby injuries indicated that rugby union football was associated with a significantly higher rate of injury than soccer. The differences were pronounced for contact injuries, injuries of the head, neck, shoulder, and upper extremity, as well as for concussion, fractures, dislocations, and strains. Rugby players incurred 1.5 times more overuse and training injuries in relation to exposure time, and 2.7 times more match injuries than soccer players. Three rugby players but no soccer players had to stop their participation in sport because of severe injury. The incidence of injury in New Zealand school teams playing soccer or rugby union is high, probably in part because of the low ratio of hours spent in training relative to hours spent playing matches. The development and implementation of preventive interventions to reduce the rate and severity of injury is recommended.British Journal of Sports Medicine 05/2004; 38(2):168-72. · 3.67 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To describe the incidence, nature, and circumstances of injury experienced by a cohort of rugby union players during a full competitive club season. A prospective cohort study followed up 356 male and female rugby players throughout the 1993 competitive club season. Players were interviewed by telephone each week to obtain information on the amount of rugby played and the injury experienced. Detailed information was collected for 4403 player-games and 8653 player-practices. A total of 671 injury events were reported, of which 569 were rugby related. The injury rate for games was higher than that for practices (rate ratio 8.3). At 10.9 injuries per 100 player-games, males had a higher rate of injury than females at 6.1 injuries per 100 player-games (p<0.001). Injury rates varied by position, with male locks (13.0 injuries per 100 player-games) and female inside backs (12.3 injuries per 100 player-games) having the highest rate in their respective sexes. The lower limb was the body region most often injured in games (42.5%) and practices (58.4%). Sprains/strains were the most common type of injury in games (46.7%) and practices (76.1%). In games the tackle was the phase of play in which the most injuries occurred (40%), followed by rucks (17%) and mauls (12%). Thirteen per cent of game injury events were the result of foul play. Rugby injury was common among the study subjects and varied according to grade and gender. Identifying the causes of injuries in the tackle, lower limb injuries, and dealing with the issue of foul play are priority areas for the prevention of rugby injury.British Journal of Sports Medicine 01/1999; 32(4):319-25. · 3.67 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Rugby Injury and Performance Project (RIPP) is a prospective cohort study by a multidisciplinary research group. Rugby injuries constitute an important area for research because rugby union is New Zealand's national sport and because of the considerable cost of all sports injury acknowledged by the Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance Corporation (ACC). The initial phase of data collection in the RIPP involved a pre-season questionnaire which, among other things, sought to establish variables relating to the past injury experience of players. The influence of previous injury, the use of safety equipment and the availability and significance of medical advice were among the variables identified by individual questionnaires. This paper analyses the responses to pre-season questions about injury experience in the previous 12 months. In so doing, it identifies baseline data which will be used to address a possible relationship between past injury experience and the prediction of injury during the season.British Journal of Sports Medicine 01/1995; 28(4):229-33. · 3.67 Impact Factor