Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context

Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, Russia.
The American Journal of Human Genetics (Impact Factor: 10.93). 02/2008; 82(1):236-50. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.09.019
Source: PubMed


Progress in the mapping of population genetic substructure provides a core source of data for the reconstruction of the demographic history of our species and for the discovery of common signals relevant to disease research: These two aspects of enquiry overlap in their empirical data content and are especially informative at continental and subcontinental levels. In the present study of the variation of the Y chromosome pool of ethnic Russians, we show that the patrilineages within the pre-Ivan the Terrible historic borders of Russia have two main distinct sources. One of these antedates the linguistic split between West and East Slavonic-speaking people and is common for the two groups; the other is genetically highlighted by the pre-eminence of haplogroup (hg) N3 and is most parsimoniously explained by extensive assimilation of (or language change in) northeastern indigenous Finno-Ugric tribes. Although hg N3 is common for both East European and Siberian Y chromosomes, other typically Siberian or Mongolian hgs (Q and C) have negligible influence within the studied Russian Y chromosome pool. The distribution of all frequent Y chromosome haplogroups (which account for 95% of the Y chromosomal spectrum in Russians) follows a similar north-south clinal pattern among autosomal markers, apparent from synthetic maps. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots comparing intra ethnic and interethnic variation of Y chromosome in Europe show that although well detectable, intraethnic variation signals do not cross interethnic borders, except between Poles, Ukrainians, and central-southern Russians, thereby revealing their overwhelmingly shared patrilineal ancestry.

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    • "References: Latvians – present study; Ukrainians (Mielnik-Sikorska et al., 2013); Belarusians (Kushniarevich et al., 2013); Russians Northern/Central (Balanovsky et al., 2008); Estonians, Lithuanians, Finns, Karelians (Lappalainen et al., 2008); Swedes (Karlsson et al., 2006); South Siberian populations (Derenko et al., 2006); Maris from the Volga-Ural region (Tambets et al., 2004); Poles, Germans (Rebala et al., 2012); populations from Iberian Peninsula and samples from France/Corsica (Bekada et al., 2013). "
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    Annals of Human Genetics 09/2015; 79(6). DOI:10.1111/ahg.12130 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    • "It has been reported at a low frequency in Southeast Europe and the Near East (Underhill and Kivisild, 2007), whereas subgroups of F have been primarily found in India (Kivisild et al., 2003). E1b and J2 are common in extant South and Southeast Europeans and were thought to have spread with the Neolithic expansion (Semino et al., 2004), and while E1b has been observed, J2 and other common modern haplogroups, such as N1c (frequent in Siberian and Northeast European populations; Rootsi et al., 2007; Balanovsky et al., 2008) have yet to be observed in prehistoric contexts. Similarly , the most predominant haplogroups in modern-day European populations (R1b in West Europe and R1a in East Europe; Balaresque et al., 2010; Underhill et al., 2010; Myres et al., 2011) have not been found in early farming sites, but instead have been reported from Late Neolithic contexts with a surprisingly matching geographic distribution of the associated archaeological cultural complexes, namely the Bell Beaker complex in Western Europe (R1b; Lee et al., 2012) and the Corded Ware culture in East Europe (R1a; Haak et al., 2008; see also below). "
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