High-affinity uptake of kynurenine and nitric oxide-mediated inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in bone marrow-derived myeloid dendritic cells.

Department of Medical Technology, Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, 1-20 Daikominami-1-chome, Higashi-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 461-8673, Japan.
Immunology Letters (Impact Factor: 2.37). 03/2008; 116(1):95-102. DOI: 10.1016/j.imlet.2007.11.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-initiated tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway in some dendritic cells (DC) such as plasmacytoid DC (pDC) regulates T-cell responses. It is unclear whether bone marrow-derived myeloid DC (BMDC) express functional IDO. The IDO expression was examined in CD11c(+)CD11b(+) BMDC differentiated from mouse bone marrow cells using GM-CSF. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) induced the expression of IDO protein with the production of nitric oxide (NO) in BMDC in cultures for 24h. In the enzyme assay using cellular extracts of BMDC, the IDO activity of BMDC stimulated with CpG was enhanced by the addition of a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, suggesting that IDO activity was suppressed by NO production. On the other hand, the concentration of Kyn in the culture supernatant of BMDC was not increased by stimulation with CpG. Exogenously added Kyn was taken up by BMDC independently of CpG stimulation and NO production, and the uptake of Kyn was inhibited by a transport system L-specific inhibitor or high concentrations of tryptophan. The uptake of tryptophan by BMDC was markedly lower than that of Kyn. In conclusion, IDO activity in BMDC is down-regulated by NO production, whereas BMDC strongly take up exogenous Kyn.

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    ABSTRACT: Although an immunoregulatory role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) has been demonstrated in T cells and macrophages, little is known about its function in dendritic cells (DC). Here, we show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CpG stimulate Ahr expression in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC). Furthermore, we found that Ahr is required to induce indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression, an immunosuppressive enzyme that catabolizes tryptophan into kynurenine (Kyn) and other metabolites in DC. In the presence of LPS or CpG, Ahr-deficient (Ahr(-/-)) mature BMDC induced immune responses characterized by reduced Kyn and IL-10 production compared with results observed with tolerogenic mature WT BMDC. In a coculture system with LPS- or CpG-stimulated BMDC and naive T cells, Ahr(-/-) BMDC inhibited naive T-cell differentiation into regulatory T (Treg) cells, which likely facilitated Th17 cell development and promoted naive T-cell proliferation. Addition of synthetic L-Kyn to the coculture system skewed the differentiation of naive T cells to Treg cells rather than Th17 cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate a previously unknown negatively regulatory role for Ahr in DC-mediated immunogenesis in the presence of LPS or CpG, which, in turn, alters the Kyn-dependent generation of Treg cells and Th17 cells from naive T cells.
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