Disinhibition: Its effect on appetite and weight regulation

Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
Obesity Reviews (Impact Factor: 8). 09/2008; 9(5):409-19. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00426.x
Source: PubMed


Over the past 30 years, the understanding of eating behaviour has been dominated by the concept of dietary restraint. However, the development of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire introduced two other factors, Disinhibition and Hunger, which have not received as much recognition in the literature. The objective of this review was to explore the relationship of the Disinhibition factor with weight regulation, food choice and eating disorders, and to consider its aetiology. The review indicates that Disinhibition is an important eating behaviour trait. It is associated not only with a higher body mass index and obesity, but also with mediating variables, such as less healthful food choices, which contribute to overweight/obesity and poorer health. Disinhibition is also implicated in eating disorders and contributes to eating disorder severity. It has been demonstrated that Disinhibition is predictive of poorer success at weight loss, and of weight regain after weight loss regimes and is associated with lower self-esteem, low physical activity and poor psychological health. Disinhibition therefore emerges as an important and dynamic trait, with influences that go beyond eating behaviour and incorporate other behaviours which contribute to weight regulation and obesity. The characteristics of Disinhibition itself therefore reflect many components representative of a thrifty type of physiology. We propose that the trait of Disinhibition be more appropriately renamed as 'opportunistic eating' or 'thrifty behaviour'.


Available from: Eleanor J Bryant
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    • "Examples of disinhibition include eating in response to negative affect, overeating at a social gathering, not being able to resist temptation to eat, and overeating in response to food that looks delicious (Bryant et al., 2008). Higher levels of disinhibition are associated with a higher BMI, poorer food choices, and are clearly a risk factor for obesity (Bryant et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Poor eating behaviors greatly influence the development of becoming overweight or obese. Learning to better self-regulate eating is one area in which individuals can positively influence their own health.PurposeThe purpose of this concept analysis is to provide an in-depth analysis of the concept eating self-regulation as it pertains to overweight and obese adults using Walker and Avant's method.ResultsThe definition for eating self-regulation formulated as a result of this concept analysis and based on the critical attributes is the ability to initiate goal-related behaviors, to consistently self-monitor dietary intake, to regularly apply willpower to resist temptations, to self-evaluate where one stands in relationship to goal attainment, and finally to maintain motivation to positively change eating behaviors. Cognitive restraint, moderation, mindfulness, disinhibition, delayed gratification, emotions and moods, self-efficacy, social support, the environment, and physical activity are the antecedents that may influence eating self-regulation.Conclusion Examining an individual's weight, body mass index, lipid levels, or blood pressure are some ways to determine if self-regulation of eating behavior is achieved. With a consistent definition of self-regulation and a better understanding of the critical factors that influence eating behaviors, research can better explore how to help individuals change their eating behaviors more effectively.
    Nursing Forum 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/nuf.12125
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    • "For individuals in the positive mood induction, that study found higher snack intake in the low restraint/high disinhibition group but not the low restraint/ low disinhibition group. Individuals high in disinhibition would be more inclined to the over consumption of food and at more extreme levels with binge eating (Bryant et al., 2008; d'Amore et al., 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Separate lines of research have demonstrated the role of mood and memory in the amount of food we consume. However, no work has examined these factors in a single study and given their combined effects beyond food research, this would seem important. In this study, the interactive effect of these factors was investigated. Unrestrained female participants (n = 64), were randomly assigned to either a positive or neutral mood induction, and were subject to a lunch cue (recalling their previously eaten meal) or no lunch cue, followed by a snack taste/intake test. We found that in line with prediction that food intake was lower in the lunch cue versus no cue condition and in contrast, food intake was higher in the positive versus neutral mood condition. We also found that more food was consumed in the lunch cue/positive mood compared to lunch cue/neutral mood condition. This suggests that positive mood places additional demands on attentional resources and thereby reduces the inhibitory effect of memory on food consumption. These findings confirm that memory cue and positive mood exert opposing effects on food consumption and highlight the importance of both factors in weight control interventions.
    Appetite 09/2014; 84. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2014.09.021 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    • "Examples include eating in response to negative affect, overeating when others are eating, not being able to resist stimulation to eating and overeating in response to the palatability of the food. Disinhibited eating behavior is not only associated with weight gain and obesity, but also with mediating variables such as less healthful food choices, which contribute to a state of positive caloric balance and poorer health [70–72]. Disinhibited eating is predictive of poorer success at weight loss, and of weight regain after weight loss [73, 74], and is also associated with sedentary behavior [75] and poor psychological health [76]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Quebec Family Study (QFS) was an observational study with three cycles of data collection between 1979 and 2002 in Quebec City, Canada. The cohort is a mixture of random sampling and ascertainment through obese individuals. The study has significantly contributed to our understanding of the determinants of obesity and associated disease risk over the past 35 years. In particular, the QFS cohort was used to investigate the contribution of familial resemblance and genetic effects on body fatness and behaviors related to energy balance. Significant familial aggregation and genetic heritability were reported for total adiposity, fat-free mass, subcutaneous fat distribution, abdominal and visceral fat, resting metabolic rate, physical activity level and other behavioral traits. The resources of QFS were also used to study the contribution of several nontraditional (non-caloric) risk factors as predictors of excess body weight and gains in weight and adiposity over time, including low calcium and micronutrient intake, high disinhibition eating behavior trait, and short sleep duration. An important finding relates to the interactions between dietary macronutrient intake and exercise intensity on body mass and adiposity. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13679-013-0086-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    03/2014; 3(1). DOI:10.1007/s13679-013-0086-3
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