Genome comparison of Bifidobacterium longum strains NCC2705 and CRC-002 using suppression subtractive hybridization.
ABSTRACT Because probiotic effects are strain dependent, genomic explanations of these differences will contribute to understanding their mechanisms of action. The genomic sequence of the Bifidobacterium longum probiotic strain NCC2705 was determined, but little is known about the genetic diversity between strains of this species. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) is a powerful method for generating a set of DNA fragments differing between two closely related bacterial strains. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic differences between genomes of B. longum strains NCC2705 and CRC-002 using PCR-based SSH. Strain CRC-002 produces exopolysaccharides whereas NCC2705 is not known for reliable exopolysaccharide production. Thirty-five and 30 different sequences were obtained from the SSH libraries of strains CRC-002 and NCC2705, respectively. Specific CRC-002 genes found were predicted to be involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides and metabolism of other carbohydrates, and these genes were not present in the genome of strain NCC2705. The identification of an endo-1,4-beta-xylanase gene in the CRC-002 SSH library is an important difference because xylanase genes have previously been proposed as a defining characteristic of the NCC2705 strain. The results demonstrate that the SSH technique was useful to highlight potential genes involved in complex sugar metabolism that differ between the two probiotic strains.
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ABSTRACT: A comprehensive proteomic study was carried out to identify and characterize proteins expressed by Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705. A total of 708 spots representing 369 protein entries were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and/or ESI-MS/MS. Isoelectric point values estimated by gel electrophoresis matched closely with their predicted ones, although some discrepancies exist suggesting that post-translational protein modifications might be common in B. longum. The identified proteins represent 21.4% of the predicted 1727 ORFs in the genome and correspond to 30% of the predicted proteome. Moreover 95 hypothetical proteins were experimentally identified. This is the first compilation of a proteomic reference map for the important probiotic organism B. longum NCC2705. The study aimed to define a number of cellular pathways related to important physiological processes at the proteomic level. Proteomic comparison of glucose- and fructose-grown cells revealed that fructose and glucose are catabolized via the same degradation pathway. Interestingly the sugar-binding protein specific to fructose (BL0033) and Frk showed higher levels of expression in cells grown on fructose than on glucose as determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. BL0033 time course and concentration experiments showed that the induction time and fructose concentration correlates to increased expression of BL0033. At the same time, an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter ATP-binding protein (BL0034) was slightly up-regulated in cells grown on fructose compared with glucose. All of the above results suggest that the uptake of fructose into the cell may be conducted by a specific transport system in which BL0033 might play an important role.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 07/2006; 5(6):1105-18. · 7.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Comparisons between genomes of closely related bacteria often show large variations in gene content, even between strains of the same species. Such studies have focused mainly on pathogens; here, we examined Thermotoga maritima, a free-living hyperthermophilic bacterium, by using suppressive subtractive hybridization. The genome sequence of T. maritima MSB8 is available, and DNA from this strain served as a reference to obtain strain-specific sequences from Thermotoga sp. strain RQ2, a very close relative (approximately 96% identity for orthologous protein-coding genes, 99.7% identity in the small-subunit rRNA sequence). Four hundred twenty-six RQ2 subtractive clones were sequenced. One hundred sixty-six had no DNA match in the MSB8 genome. These differential clones comprise, in sum, 48 kb of RQ2-specific DNA and match 72 genes in the GenBank database. From the number of identical clones, we estimated that RQ2 contains 350 to 400 genes not found in MSB8. Assuming a similar genome size, this corresponds to 20% of the RQ2 genome. A large proportion of the RQ2-specific genes were predicted to be involved in sugar transport and polysaccharide degradation, suggesting that polysaccharides are more important as nutrients for this strain than for MSB8. Several clones encode proteins involved in the production of surface polysaccharides. RQ2 encodes multiple subunits of a V-type ATPase, while MSB8 possesses only an F-type ATPase. Moreover, an RQ2-specific MutS homolog was found among the subtractive clones and appears to belong to a third novel archaeal type MutS lineage. Southern blot analyses showed that some of the RQ2 differential sequences are found in some other members of the order Thermotogales, but the distribution of these variable genes is patchy, suggesting frequent lateral gene transfer within the group.Journal of Bacteriology 09/2002; 184(16):4475-88. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new and highly effective method, termed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), has been developed for the generation of subtracted cDNA libraries. It is based primarily on a recently described technique called suppression PCR and combines normalization and subtraction in a single procedure. The normalization step equalizes the abundance of cDNAs within the target population and the subtraction step excludes the common sequences between the target and driver populations. In a model system, the SSH technique enriched for rare sequences over 1,000-fold in one round of subtractive hybridization. We demonstrate its usefulness by generating a testis-specific cDNA library and by using the subtracted cDNA mixture as a hybridization probe to identify homologous sequences in a human Y chromosome cosmid library. The human DNA inserts in the isolated cosmids were further confirmed to be expressed in a testis-specific manner. These results suggest that the SSH technique is applicable to many molecular genetic and positional cloning studies for the identification of disease, developmental, tissue-specific, or other differentially expressed genes.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/1996; 93(12):6025-30. · 9.74 Impact Factor