The Republic of the Marshall Islands has been recognised anecdotally to have high rates of major lower limb amputations secondary to diabetes. During 2001, a prosthetics service was introduced as part of the rehabilitation service at Majuro Hospital.
1. To determine the incidence of major lower limb amputations over a one year period from 2002 to 2003. 2. To evaluate the proportion of patients suitable for prosthetic fitting. 3. Determine survival rates and usage of prostheses six to eighteen months after prosthetic fitting.
Amputation rates were established through review of the surgical logs at the two hospitals in the Marshall Islands. Prosthetic fitting rates were determined using records from Majuro hospital rehabilitation service. Follow up interviews were conducted with fifteen surviving patients who received prostheses during the study period, to investigate prosthetic use.
The incidence of major lower limb amputation was found to be 79.5 per 100,000 population, with all forty-five amputations being associated with diabetes. Just over a third of these patients were discharged from rehabilitation with a prosthesis. Fifteen of the patients were followed up post discharge. All of the thirteen with transtibial amputations were found to be using their prosthesis at least some of the day. The two patients with transfemoral amputations had ceased to walk with their prosthesis.
This study identified a very high rate of lower limb amputation in the Marshall Islands by world standards. Prosthetic fitting rates and follow up results were comparable to those reported by others, and indicate that small, geographically isolated island nations such as the Marshall Islands are able to provide a successful prosthetics and rehabilitation service locally.
"Adjustment to a standard world population gave an age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes in adults 30 or more years of age of 27% (Yamada, Dodd, Soe, Chen, and Bauman, 2004). Over a one year period (2002-2003), the rate of major lower limb amputations for the Marshall Islands was 79.5/100,000, with amputations being performed on patients as young as 30 (Harding, 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing numbers of people from the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall
Islands are presenting for clinical and public health services across the U.S., especially in Hawaii. We
review the impact of historical and contemporary relationships between the U.S. and these Freely
Associated States on the health status and health care access of these migrants. We draw upon both
epidemiological evidence and clinical experience to suggest measures to assure health care access and
appropriate clinical care for these populations. We also point to potential public health measures, and
indicate directions for future research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The type 2 diabetes epidemic is a global health issue, particularly in the US Associated Pacific Islands (USAPI). Population health approaches targeting policy development and environmental transformations can help prevent or delay diabetes and related complications.
Since 1986, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Diabetes Translation has provided financial support to 6 USAPI jurisdictions for diabetes prevention and control programs. Geographic isolation, shortages of health care professionals, dependence on US and international aid, and persistent health care funding challenges are constant concerns in these jurisdictions.
In September 2007, representatives from USAPI diabetes prevention and control programs, the Papa Ola Lökahi Pacific Diabetes Education Program, and the Division of Diabetes Translation met to collectively assess program goals within the Essential Public Health Services framework. Participants shared examples of integrated approaches to health promotion and diabetes prevention.
Despite persistent health care funding challenges, the assessment showed the resourcefulness of the islands' diabetes programs in leveraging resources, creating policy and environmental interventions, and strengthening connections in the traditional cultural systems.
Population health approaches used in island jurisdictions reflect the resilience of the islands' cultures in navigating between traditional and Western ways of life. Attention to the interface of cultural knowledge and Western science provides the USAPI diabetes prevention and control programs with opportunities to create strong, sustained partnerships with the shared vision of transforming social and environmental conditions so that they can support healthy people living in healthy island communities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the city of Trondheim, Norway, diabetic lower-limb amputations accounted for one-third of all lower-limb amputations (LLAs). In an attempt to reduce this rate, a diabetic foot team was established in 1996. We present the incidence of LLA in Trondheim as measured 10 years later.
In 2004-07, we registered all LLAs performed in Trondheim and then compared the data with previously published data from 1994-1997. From 1996 through 2006, we registered the activity of the diabetic foot team and we also registered the number of vascular procedures performed on citizens of Trondheim from 1998 through 2006.
Comparing the two 3-year periods 1994-97 and 2004-07, we observed a decrease in all non-traumatic LLAs. The incidence of diabetic major LLAs per 10³ diabetics per year decreased from 4.0 to 2.4, and in patients with peripheral vascular disease we observed a decrease in LLAs from 18 to 12 per 10⁵ inhabitants per year. 5,915 consultations on diabetic subjects were conducted by the diabetic foot team during the period 1996-2006. From 1998 to 2006, the rate of vascular procedures decreased in the non-diabetic population, and was unchanged in diabetic subjects.
In the population of Trondheim city there appears to have been a reduction in the rate of vascular obstructive lower-limb disease between the two 3-year periods 1994-97 and 2004-07. In our judgment, the decline in diabetic LLA also reflects better care of the diabetic foot.
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