The effectiveness of exercise interventions for people with Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Primary Care Research Group, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, United Kingdom.
Movement Disorders (Impact Factor: 5.63). 04/2008; 23(5):631-40. DOI: 10.1002/mds.21922
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the physical, psychological, social, and functional status of individuals. Exercise programs may be an effective strategy to delay or reverse functional decline for people with PD and a large body of empirical evidence has emerged in recent years. The objective is to systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on the effectiveness of exercise interventions on outcomes (physical, psychological or social functioning, or quality of life) for people with PD. RCTs meeting the inclusion criteria were identified by systematic searching of electronic databases. Key data were extracted by two independent researchers. A mixed methods approach was undertaken using narrative, vote counting, and random effects meta-analysis methods. Fourteen RCTs were included and the methodological quality of most studies was moderate. Evidence supported exercise as being beneficial with regards to physical functioning, health-related quality of life, strength, balance and gait speed for people with PD. There was insufficient evidence support or refute the value of exercise in reducing falls or depression. This review found evidence of the potential benefits of exercise for people with PD, although further good quality research is needed. Questions remain around the optimal content of exercise interventions (dosing, component exercises) at different stages of the disease.

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    ABSTRACT: The use of progressive resistance training (PRT) to improve gait and balance in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an emerging area of interest. However, the main effects of PRT on lower limb function such as gait, balance and leg strength in people with PD remain unclear. Therefore the aim of the meta-analysis is to evaluate the evidence surrounding the use of PRT to improve gait and balance in people with PD. Five electronic databases, from inception to December 2014, were searched to identify the relevant studies. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers and methodological quality assessed using the PEDro scale. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the effect sizes between experimental and control groups and I2 33 statistics were used to determine levels of heterogeneity. In total, 7 studies were identified consisting of 172 participants (Experimental n=84; Control n=88). The pooled results showed a moderate but significant effect of PRT on leg strength (SMD 1.42, 95% CI 0.464 to 2.376), however no significant effects were observed for gait speed (SMD 0.418, 95% CI -0.219 to 1.055). No significant effects were observed for balance measures included in this review. In conclusion, our results showed no discernable effect of PRT on gait and balance measures, although this is likely due to the lack of studies available. It may be suggested that PRT be performed in conjunction with balance or task-specific functional training to elicit greater lower limb functional benefits in people with PD.
    Frontiers in aging series 03/2015; DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2015.00040
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    DESCRIPTION: This study investigated the effect of a multimodal exercise program on executive functions and memory in people with Parkinson’s disease, taking into account disease severity and gender. Twenty-three patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) were evaluated before and after a 6-month exercise program to improve executive functions and memory. We observed the effects of the intervention on executive functions (ability to abstract: p = .01), immediate memory (p = .04) and declarative episodic memory (p < .001). Women showed higher scores on declarative episodic memory (p = .03) than men, however there was no interaction between gender and the intervention. Regardless of sex and disease severity, these preliminary results indicate that the multimodal exercise seems to be effective in improving cognitive functions in patients with PD, suggesting that this program can be indicated as a preventive strategy to mitigate progressive cognitive deficits in the later stages of the disease.
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    ABSTRACT: Unlike many other neurodegenerative diseases with established gene-environment interactions, Huntington's disease (HD) is viewed as a disorder governed by genetics. The cause of the disease is a highly penetrant tandem repeat expansion encoding an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. In the year 2000, a pioneering study showed the disease could be delayed in transgenic mice by enriched housing conditions. This review describes subsequent human and pre-clinical studies identifying environmental modulation of motor, cognitive, affective and other symptoms found in HD. Alongside the behavioral observations we also discuss potential mechanisms and the relevance to other neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In mouse models of HD, increased sensorimotor and cognitive stimulation can delay or ameliorate various endophenotypes. Potential mechanisms include increased trophic support, synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis, and other forms of experience-dependent cellular plasticity. Subsequent clinical investigations support a role for lifetime activity levels in modulating the onset and progression of HD. Stress can accelerate memory and olfactory deficits and exacerbate cellular dysfunctions in HD mice. In the absence of effective treatments to slow the course of HD, environmental interventions offer feasible approaches to delay the disease, however further preclinical and human studies are needed in order to generate clinical recommendations. Environmental interventions could be combined with future pharmacological therapies and stimulate the identification of enviromimetics, drugs which mimic or enhance the beneficial effects of cognitive stimulation and physical activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.03.003 · 10.28 Impact Factor

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