Article

The xc− cystine/glutamate antiporter: A potential target for therapy of cancer and other diseases

Department of Experimental Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Journal of Cellular Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.87). 06/2008; 215(3):593-602. DOI: 10.1002/jcp.21366
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The x(c) (-) cystine/glutamate antiporter is a major plasma membrane transporter for the cellular uptake of cystine in exchange for intracellular glutamate. Its main functions in the body are mediation of cellular cystine uptake for synthesis of glutathione essential for cellular protection from oxidative stress and maintenance of a cystine:cysteine redox balance in the extracellular compartment. In the past decade it has become evident that the x(c) (-) transporter plays an important role in various aspects of cancer, including: (i) growth and progression of cancers that have a critical growth requirement for extracellular cystine/cysteine, (ii) glutathione-based drug resistance, (iii) excitotoxicity due to excessive release of glutamate, and (iv) uptake of herpesvirus 8, a causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma. The x(c) (-) transporter also plays a role in certain CNS and eye diseases. This review focuses on the expression and function of the x(c) (-) transporter in cells and tissues with particular emphasis on its role in disease pathogenesis. The potential use of x(c) (-) inhibitors (e.g., sulfasalazine) for arresting tumor growth and/or sensitizing cancers is discussed.

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    ABSTRACT: The cystine/glutamate transporter, designated as system xc-, is important for maintaining intracellular glutathione levels and extracellular redox balance. The substrate-specific component of system xc-, xCT, is strongly induced by various stimuli, including oxidative stress, whereas it is constitutively expressed only in specific brain regions and immune tissues such as thymus and spleen. While cystine and glutamate are the well-established substrates of system xc- and the knockout of xCT leads to alterations of extracellular redox balance, nothing is known about other potential substrates. We thus performed a comparative metabolite analysis of tissues from xCT-deficient and wild-type mice using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Although most of the analysed metabolites did not show significant alterations between xCT-deficient and wild-type mice, cystathionine emerged to be absent specifically in thymus and spleen of xCT-deficient mice. No expression of either cystathionine β-synthase or cystathionine γ-lyase was observed in thymus and spleen of mice. In embryonic fibroblasts derived from wild-type embryos, cystine uptake was significantly inhibited by cystathionine in a concentration-dependent manner. Wild-type cells showed an intracellular accumulation of cystathionine when incubated in cystathionine-containing buffer, which concomitantly stimulated an increased release of glutamate into the extracellular space. By contrast, none of these effects could be observed in xCT-deficient cells. Remarkably, unlike knockout cells, wild-type cells could be rescued from cystine deprivation-induced cell death by cystathionine supplementation. We thus conclude that cystathionine is a novel physiological substrate of system xc-, and that the accumulation of cystathionine in immune tissues is exclusively mediated by system xc-. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

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