Low doses of alpha particles do not induce sister chromatid exchanges in bystander Chinese hamster cells defective in homologous recombination.
ABSTRACT We reported previously that the homologous recombinational repair (HRR)-deficient Chinese hamster mutant cell line irs3 (deficient in the Rad51 paralog Rad51C) showed only a 50% spontaneous frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) as compared to parental wild-type V79 cells. Furthermore, when irradiated with very low doses of alpha particles, SCEs were not induced in irs3 cells, as compared to a prominent bystander effect observed in V79 cells [H. Nagasawa, Y. Peng, P.F. Wilson, Y.C. Lio, D.J. Chen, J.S. Bedford, J.B. Little, Role of homologous recombination in the alpha-particle-induced bystander effect for sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations, Radiat. Res. 164 (2005) 141-147]. In the present study, we examined additional Chinese hamster cell lines deficient in the Rad51 paralogs Rad51C, Rad51D, Xrcc2, and Xrcc3 as well as another essential HRR protein, Brca2. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in non-irradiated wild-type cell lines CHO, AA8 and V79 were 0.33SCE/chromosome, whereas two Rad51C-deficient cell lines showed only 0.16SCE/chromosome. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in cell lines defective in Rad51D, Xrcc2, Xrcc3, and Brca2 ranged from 0.23 to 0.33SCE/chromosome, 0-30% lower than wild-type cells. SCEs were induced significantly 20-50% above spontaneous levels in wild-type cells exposed to a mean dose of 1.3mGy of alpha particles (<1% of nuclei traversed by an alpha particle). However, induction of SCEs above spontaneous levels was minimal or absent after alpha-particle irradiation in all of the HRR-deficient cell lines. These data suggest that Brca2 and the Rad51 paralogs contribute to DNA damage repair processes induced in bystander cells (presumably oxidative damage repair in S-phase cells) following irradiation with very low doses of alpha particles.
SourceAvailable from: Eiichiro Mori[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: WRN, the protein defective in Werner syndrome (WS), is a multifunctional nuclease involved in DNA damage repair, replication, and genome stability maintenance. It was assumed that the nuclease activities of WRN were critical for these functions. Here, we report a nonenzymatic role for WRN in preserving nascent DNA strands following replication stress. We found that lack of WRN led to shortening of nascent DNA strands after replication stress. Furthermore, we discovered that the exonuclease activity of MRE11 was responsible for the shortening of newly replicated DNA in the absence of WRN. Mechanistically, the N-terminal FHA domain of NBS1 recruits WRN to replication-associated DNA double-stranded breaks to stabilize Rad51 and to limit the nuclease activity of its C-terminal binding partner MRE11. Thus, this previously unrecognized nonenzymatic function of WRN in the stabilization of nascent DNA strands sheds light on the molecular reason for the origin of genome instability in WS individuals. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Cell Reports 11/2014; 9(4):1387-401. DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.10.025 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy is an important treatment option for many human cancers. Current research is investigating the use of molecular targeted drugs in order to improve responses to radiotherapy in various cancers. The cellular response to irradiation is driven by both direct DNA damage in the targeted cell and intercellular signalling leading to a broad range of bystander effects. This study aims to elucidate radiation-induced DNA damage response signalling in bystander cells and to identify potential molecular targets to modulate the radiation induced bystander response in a therapeutic setting. Stalled replication forks in T98G bystander cells were visualised via bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) nuclear foci detection at sites of single stranded DNA. γH2AX co-localised with these BrdU foci. BRCA1 and FANCD2 foci formed in T98G bystander cells. Using ATR mutant F02-98 hTERT and ATM deficient GM05849 fibroblasts it could be shown that ATR but not ATM was required for the recruitment of FANCD2 to sites of replication associated DNA damage in bystander cells whereas BRCA1 bystander foci were ATM-dependent. Phospho-Chk1 foci formation was observed in T98G bystander cells. Clonogenic survival assays showed moderate radiosensitisation of directly irradiated cells by the Chk1 inhibitor UCN-01 but increased radioresistance of bystander cells. This study identifies BRCA1, FANCD2 and Chk1 as potential targets for the modulation of radiation response in bystander cells. It adds to our understanding of the key molecular events propagating out-of-field effects of radiation and provides a rationale for the development of novel molecular targeted drugs for radiotherapy optimisation. http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1Q8Mt15DNFEb5P. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4259524/Cancer Letters 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2014.09.043 · 5.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Purposes:To review research progress on the molecular mechanisms of low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR)-induced hormesis, adaptive responses, radioresistance, bystander effects, and genomic instabilityin order to provideclues for therapeutic approaches to enhance biopositive effects(defined as radiation-induced beneficial effects to the organism), and control bionegative effects(defined as radiation-induced harmful effects to the organism)and related human diseases. Conclusions:Experimental studies have indicated that Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospho-c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase(JNK) and protein 53 (P53)-related signal transduction pathwaysmay be involved in LDIR-induced hormesis;MAPK, P53 may be important for adaptive response;ATM, cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2), ERK, JNK, reactive oxygen species (ROS), P53 for radioresistance; COX-2, ERK, MAPK, ROS, tumor necrosis factor receptor alpha (TNFα) for LDIR-induced bystander effect; whereas ATM, ERK, MAPK, P53, ROS, TNFα-related signal transduction pathways are involved in LDIR-induced genomic instability.These results suggest that different manifestations of LDIR-induced cellular responses may have different signal transduction pathways. On the other hand, LDIR-induced different responses may also share the same signal transduction pathways. For instance, P53 has been involved in LDIR-induced hormesis, adaptive response, radioresistance and genomic instability.Current data therefore suggest that caution should be taken whendesigning therapeutic approaches using LDIR to induce beneficial effectsin humans.International Journal of Radiation Biology 06/2014; DOI:10.3109/09553002.2014.937510 · 1.84 Impact Factor