Emerging roles of Abl family tyrosine kinases in microbial pathogenesis.
ABSTRACT Abl family kinases are central regulators of multiple cellular processes controlling actin dynamics, proliferation and differentiation. Recent studies indicate that different pathogens highjack Abl kinase signalling to reorganize the host actin cytoskeleton and promote the tyrosine phosphorylation of four known bacterial and viral effector proteins. Abl signalling is implicated in such diverse processes as microbial invasion, viral release from host cells, actin-based motility, actin-rich pedestal formation and cell scattering. Thus, Abl kinases are emerging as crucial regulators of multiple pathological signalling cascades during infection. Therapeutic intervention against Abl kinase activity might be an effective and novel strategy to combat serious microbial diseases.
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 01/1997; 8(1):164-166. DOI:10.1016/S1051-0443(97)70079-4 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The holE gene is an enterobacterial ORFan gene. It encodes the θ subunit of the DNA polymerase III core complex. The precise function of the θ subunit within this complex is not well established, and loss of holE does not result in a noticeable phenotype. Paralogs of holE are also present on many conjugative plasmids and on phage P1 (gene hot). In this study we provide evidence indicating that θ (HolE) exhibits structural and functional similarities to a family of nucleoid-associated regulatory proteins, the Hha/YdgT-like proteins that are also encoded by enterobacterial ORFan genes. Microarray studies comparing the transcriptional profiles of Escherichia coli holE, hha and ydgT mutants revealed highly similar expression patterns for strains harboring holE and ydgT alleles. Amongst the genes differentially regulated in both mutants were genes of the tryptophanase (tna) operon. The tna operon consists of a transcribed leader region, tnaL, and two structural genes, tnaA and tnaB. Further experiments with transcriptional lacZ fusions (tnaL::lacZ and tnaA::lacZ) indicate that HolE and YdgT downregulate expression of the tna operon by possibly increasing the level of Rho-dependent transcription termination at the tna operon's leader region. Thus, for the first time, a regulatory function can be attributed to HolE, in addition to its role as structural component of the DNA polymerase III complex.Journal of bacteriology 12/2013; 196(5). DOI:10.1128/JB.01448-13 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A viruses (IAV) encodes several src homology (SH) binding motifs (bm) (one SH2bm, up to two SH3bm), which mediate interactions with host cell proteins. In contrast to NS1 of human IAV, NS1 of avian strains possess the second SH3bm (SH3(II)bm) consensus sequence. Since our former studies demonstrated an NS1-CRK interaction, mediated by this motif, here, we addressed the regulatory properties of this SH3bm for cellular signaling. Initially, we observed a reduced basal CRK phosphorylation upon infection with avian IAV harboring an NS1 with an SH3(II)bm in contrast to human IAV. Reduced activity of the tyrosine kinase c-Abl was identified to be responsible for reduced CRK phosphorylation. Further, binding of NS1 to c-Abl was determined, and mutational manipulation of the SH3(II)bm illustrated the necessity of this motif for c-Abl inhibition. Interestingly, Abl kinase inhibition resulted in impaired avian IAV propagation and pathogenicity and mutational analysis linked the pronounced inhibition of c-Abl to cytopathogenic cell alterations upon avian IAV infections. Taken together, NS1 proteins of avian IAV interfere with the kinase activity of c-Abl, a major cellular signaling integrator that controls multiple signaling processes and cell fate regulations apparently including IAV infections.Cellular Microbiology 07/2014; 16(12). DOI:10.1111/cmi.12332 · 4.82 Impact Factor