Neem leaf glycoprotein restores the impaired chemotactic activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients by maintaining CXCR3/CXCL10 balance.
ABSTRACT Interaction between CXCL10 and CXCR3 is dysregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and hampers chemotaxis of cytotoxic cells at tumor site. In continuation of the demonstration of significant immunomodulatory effects of neem leaf preparation (NLP), the active ingredient of NLP is characterized as a glycoprotein (NLGP). NLGP is responsible for in vivo immunomodulation to restrict the growth of mice tumors. Effect of NLGP in rectification of the dysregulated IFN gamma dependent chemokine and its receptor CXCR3 splice variants was investigated. Upregulated expression of CXCR3B in HNSCC-PBMC were downregulated following in vitro NLGP treatment. Unchanged expression of CXCR3A+B by NLGP with downregulation of the CXCR3B indirectly suggests the upregulation of the CXCR3A, responsible for cellular migration. However, stimulation of healthy-PBMC with NLGP maintains physiological homeostasis of CXCL10 and increases IFN gamma secretion. The suppressed chemotaxis of HNSCC-PBMC could be restored either by in vitro treatment with NLGP or during use of NLGP stimulated PBMC supernatant as a chemoattractant. Neutralization studies confirmed that the chemoattraction process is guided by both receptor (CXCR3A) and its ligand (CXCL10). Neutralization of the IFN gamma in PBMC culture in presence of NLGP unexpectedly increases the intracellular release of CXCL10, suggesting the NLGP mediated IFN gamma independent release of CXCL10. Interestingly, downregulation of the CXCL10 release was detected after IFN gamma neutralization in absence of NLGP and IFN gamma receptor neutralization in presence of NLGP. Efficacy of NLGP in restoration of the dysregulation of the chemokine signaling may be utilized to design new immunotherapeutic protocol.
Article: Novel molecular targets of Azadirachta indica associated with inhibition of tumor growth in prostate cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Advanced prostate cancer has significant long-term morbidity, and there is a growing interest in alternative and complimentary forms of therapy that will improve the outcomes of patients. Azadirachta indica (common name: neem) contains multiple active compounds that have potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. The present study investigates the novel targets of the anticancer activity of ethanol extract of neem leaves (EENL) in vitro and evaluates the in vivo efficacy in the prostate cancer models. Analysis of the components in the EENL by mass spectrometry suggests the presence of 2',3'-dehydrosalannol, 6-desacetyl nimbinene, and nimolinone. Treatment of C4-2B and PC-3M-luc2 prostate cancer cells with EENL inhibited the cell proliferation. Genome-wide expression profiling, using oligonucleotide microarrays, revealed genes differentially expressed with EENL treatment in prostate cancer cells. Functional analysis unveiled that most of the up-regulated genes were associated with cell death, and drug metabolism, and the down-regulated genes were associated with cell cycle, DNA replication, recombination, and repair functions. Quantitative PCR confirmed significant up-regulation of 40 genes and immunoblotting revealed increase in the protein expression levels of HMOX1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, and AKR1B10. EENL treatment inhibited the growth of C4-2B and PC-3M-luc2 prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice. The suppression of tumor growth is associated with the formation of hyalinized fibrous tumor tissue and the induction of cell death by apoptosis. These results suggest that EENL-containing natural bioactive compounds could have potent anticancer property and the regulation of multiple cellular pathways could exert pleiotrophic effects in prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.The AAPS Journal 05/2011; 13(3):365-77. · 5.09 Impact Factor