Specificity of putative psychosocial risk factors for psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents
ABSTRACT Most psychosocial risk factors appear to have general rather than specific patterns of association with common childhood and adolescence disorders. However, previous research has typically failed to 1) control for comorbidity among disorders, 2) include a wide range of risk factors, and 3) examine sex by developmental stage effects on risk factor-disorder associations. This study tests the specificity of putative psychosocial risk factors while addressing these criticisms.
Eight waves of data from the Great Smoky Mountains Study (N = 1,420) were used, covering children in the community age 9-16 years old. Youth and one parent were interviewed up to seven times using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, providing a total of 6,674 pairs of interviews. A wide range of putative neighborhood, school, peer, family, and child risk factors, and common and comorbid youth disorders were assessed.
The majority of putative risk factors were specific to one disorder or one disorder domain. A unique or 'signature set' of putative risk factors was identified for each disorder. Several putative risk factors were associated with a disorder in preadolescent males, preadolescent females, adolescent males, or adolescent females only.
Our findings support the need to define risk factors and disorders narrowly, to control comorbidity and other risk factors, and to consider developmental patterns of specificity by sex.
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ABSTRACT: Background. With psychopathology rising during adolescence and evidence suggesting that adult mental health burden is often due to disorders beginning in youth, it is important to investigate the epidemiology of adolescent mental disorders. Method. We analysed data gathered at ages 11 (baseline) and 19 years from the population-based Dutch TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) study. At baseline we administered the Achenbach measures (Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report) and at age 19 years the World Health Organization’s Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) to 1584 youths. Results. Lifetime, 12-month and 30-day prevalences of any CIDI-DSM-IV disorder were 45, 31 and 15%, respectively. Half were severe. Anxiety disorders were the most common but the least severe whereas mood and behaviour disorders were less prevalent but more severe. Disorders persisted, mostly by recurrence in mood disorders and chronicity in anxiety disorders. Median onset age varied substantially across disorders. Having one disorder increased subjects’ risk of developing another disorder. We found substantial homotypic and heterotypic continuity. Baseline problems predicted the development of diagnosable disorders in adolescence. Non-intact families and low maternal education predicted externalizing disorders. Most morbidity concentrated in 5–10% of the sample, experiencing 34–55% of all severe lifetime disorders. Conclusions. At late adolescence, 22% of youths have experienced a severe episode and 23% only mild episodes. This psychopathology is rather persistent, mostly due to recurrence, showing both monotypic and heterotypic continuity, with family context affecting particularly externalizing disorders. High problem levels at age 11 years are modest precursors of incident adolescent disorders. The burden of mental illness concentrates in 5–10% of the adolescent population.Psychological Medicine 06/2015; 45:345-360. DOI:10.1017/S0033291714001469 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We examined transgenerational effects of maternal childhood adversity on child temperament and a functional promoter polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) as potential moderators of such maternal influences in 154 mother-child dyads, recruited into a longitudinal birth cohort study. We examined the interactive effects of maternal childhood experience using an integrated measure derived from Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Parental Bonding Index (PBI). Triallelic genotyping of 5-HTTLPR was performed. A measure of "negative emotionality/behavioural dysregulation" was derived from the Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire at 18 and 36 months. Negative emotionality/behavioural dysregulation was highly stable between 18 and 36 months and predicted psychosocial problems at 60 months. After controlling multiple demographics as well as both previous and concurrent maternal depression there was a significant interaction effect of maternal childhood adversity and offspring 5-HTTLPR genotype on child negative emotionality/behavioural dysregulation (β = 1.03, t(11,115) = 2.71, p < .01). The results suggest a transgenerational effect of maternal developmental history on emotional function in the offspring, describing a pathway that likely contributes to the familial transmission of vulnerability for psychopathology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Genes Brain and Behavior 02/2015; 14(3). DOI:10.1111/gbb.12205 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using data from a large UK cohort (n = 11,656), we investigated the determinants of 7-year-old children's aspirations, and the role of these aspirations in emotional and behavioural problems, as reported by both parents and teachers. Aspirations were classified to reflect their occupational status, masculinity/femininity and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation. Children's aspirations had significant antecedents in social disadvantage, parental involvement in learning, parental values and cognitive ability. Children with low occupational aspirations had more emotional problems as reported by both parents and teachers, and more teacher-reported peer problems. In the teacher report, masculine aspirations were also related to hyperactivity. Gender differences in the association between aspirations and emotional and behavioural problems were few and weak. Intrinsic aspirations were related to peer problems, especially in boys. The inverse relation between feminine aspirations and hyperactivity and peer problems was relatively stronger in girls, as was the association between low aspirations and emotional problems.British Educational Research Journal 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/berj.3188 · 1.50 Impact Factor