The safety of probiotics
ABSTRACT Probiotics are generally defined as microorganisms that, when consumed, generally confer a health benefit on humans. There is considerable interest in probiotics for a variety of medical conditions, and millions of people around the world consume probiotics daily for perceived health benefits. Lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and lactococci have generally been regarded as safe. There are 3 theoretical concerns regarding the safety of probiotics: (1) the occurrence of disease, such as bacteremia or endocarditis; (2) toxic or metabolic effects on the gastrointestinal tract; and (3) the transfer of antibiotic resistance in the gastrointestinal flora. In this review, the evidence for safety of the use of or the study of probiotics is examined. Although there are rare cases of bacteremia or fungemia related to the use of probiotics, epidemiologic evidence suggests no population increase in risk on the basis of usage data. There have been many controlled clinical trials on the use of probiotics that demonstrate safe use. The use of probiotics in clinical trials should be accompanied by the use of a data-safety monitoring board and by knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the organism used.
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ABSTRACT: During the last decade an increased interest in alternative, preventive, and therapeutic strategies in dentistry has arisen. Probiotics are living microorganisms which, if administered in sufficient amounts, provide a health benefit to the host. Their precise mechanisms of action have not been identified, but they are able to interfere with the imbalance occurring in biofilm-associated infections. In other fields of medicine, mainly in gastroenterology, their usefulness is already proven. Concerning oral threats, probiotic bacteria may reduce the numbers of pathogens associated with dental caries (mutans streptococci). Clinically, results are encouraging, but further research is needed to demonstrate apparent effects of certain probiotic strains on oral health as well as their desired concentration and vehicle. The use of probiotics in prevention and treatment of caries, periodontal diseases, halitosis, and other oral diseases needs to be further investigated.Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany: 1985) 12/2014; DOI:10.3290/j.qi.a33182 · 0.73 Impact Factor
Research: The Gastrointestinal Microbiome[Show description] [Hide description]
DESCRIPTION: Alcohol Effects on the Composition of Intestinal Microbiota
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ABSTRACT: The role of probiotics in potential prophylaxis of infectious disease has been studied for over a century, but until recently there has been no real interest in using these 'benign' bacterial species in place of or in combination with antibiotics. However, such suggestions are now commonplace and lead to a renewed interest in what has until recently been seen as a merely commercial branch of microbiology. This short review looks at the current literature in this area and attempts to identify if there is a scientific basis to inform the cautious clinical use of probiotics either alone or in combination with antibiotics. Whilst the evidence base is to date rather thin, there is sufficient to allow for a cautious support for such ideas. This review also identifies those areas in which further study is required before the general use of probiotics in the treatment of infection may be fully supported.