The trichotillomania scale for children: development and validation.

The Institute of Living, Anxiety Disorders Center, 200 Retreat Avenue, Hartford, CT 06106, USA.
Child Psychiatry and Human Development (Impact Factor: 1.93). 10/2008; 39(3):331-49. DOI: 10.1007/s10578-007-0092-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Trichotillomania (TTM) is a chronic impulse control disorder characterized by repetitive hair-pulling resulting in alopecia. Although this condition is frequently observed in children and adolescents, research on pediatric TTM has been hampered by the absence of validated measures. The aim of the present study was to develop and test a new self-report measure of pediatric TTM, the Trichotillomania Scale for Children (TSC), a measure that can be completed by children and/or their parents. One hundred thirteen children meeting self-report criteria for TTM, and 132 parents, provided data over the internet. An additional 41 child-parent dyads from an outpatient clinic also provided data. Replicated principal components analysis, with elimination of poorly-loading items, yielded two components, which we labeled Severity (five items) and Distress/Impairment (seven items). The TSC total score and subscales showed adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Parent-child agreement was good in the internet sample, but more modest in the clinic sample. Children's TSC scores correlated significantly with other measures of TTM severity, although some exceptions were noted. Parents' TSC scores correlated significantly with other measures of parent-rated TTM severity in the internet sample, but showed more attenuated relationships with child- and interviewer-rated TTM severity in the clinic sample. The present results suggest that the TSC may be a useful measure of TTM for child and adolescent samples, although additional clarification of convergent validity is needed.

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    ABSTRACT: Trichotillomania, or chronic hairpulling, is a common condition that affects primarily women. The disorder can cause significant psychosocial impairment and is associated with elevated rates of psychiatric comorbidity. In this article, the phenomenology, etiology, assessment, and treatment of the disorder are discussed.
    Psychiatric Clinics of North America 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.psc.2014.05.005 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Trichotillomania (TTM) often first presents in adolescence, a developmental period marked by vulnerability in body image. To date, no one has studied the relationship between this disorder and body esteem. Methods: 49 adolescents with DSM-IV TTM or chronic hair pulling (HP) and 23 control adolescents were administered diagnostic assessments and self-report measures of hair pulling and body esteem. Results: HP youth vs. controls reported lower levels of body esteem on all Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) subscales (appearance, attribution and weight satisfaction). HP contributed to lowered body esteem, independent of comorbid anxiety or depression. As expected, HP youth with vs. without comorbid anxiety or depression reported lowered levels of body esteem. Further, greater HP severity and distress were significantly associated with lower levels of body esteem. HP severity alone but not distress/impairment predicted lower levels of body esteem, independent of comorbid anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Both hair pulling and comorbid anxiety and depression can independently impact body esteem in adolescent hair pullers.
    Journal of Behavioural Addictions 06/2014; 3(2):124-7. DOI:10.1556/JBA.3.2014.010
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    ABSTRACT: Historically, trichotillomania (TTM) in young children (0-3 years old) generally has been considered to be a benign habit that is clinically distinct from the TTM seen in older children and adults. However, early childhood TTM can be an impairing pathological disorder that merits formal intervention. The present article reviews the extant literature on TTM in young children, highlighting the limited available phenomenological data. We discuss a behavioral approach to conceptualization and treatment, highlighting core intervention strategies in three early childhood TTM cases seen in our clinic. We conclude by discussing areas in need of further empirical attention.
    Infant Mental Health Journal 03/2012; 33(2). DOI:10.1002/imhj.21317 · 0.61 Impact Factor


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May 21, 2014