Soluble form of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 induces migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells
ABSTRACT Serum levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) shed from its membrane-bound form are elevated in hypertension. This study clarified the effects of sVCAM-1 on vascular responses in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs).
Boyden chamber, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and ex vivo aortic ring assays for migration and proliferation, and Western blot for the kinase activity were used.
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were compared functionally. sVCAM-1 increased RASMC migration and proliferation, which were greater in SHR compared with WKY rats. RASMCs expressed the very late antigen 4alpha receptor integrin with no difference between SHR and WKY rats. Inhibitors of phosphoinositide kinase 3 (PI3K) and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and small interference RNA-Syk abolished the sVCAM-1-induced migration, proliferation and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. The phosphorylation of Syk was significantly greater in RASMCs from SHR than from WKY rats. sVCAM-1 increased aortic sprout outgrowth, which was inhibited by inhibitors of PI3K and Syk.
This study suggests that sVCAM-1 promotes the RASMC migration and proliferation via the focal adhesion kinase pathway regulated by Syk and PI3K, and the altered sVCAM-1-induced responses during hypertension are closely associated with the increments in intracellular signal transmission.
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ABSTRACT: Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is an immunoregulatory tyrosine kinase that was identified originally in leukocytes. It is a key regulator of innate immunity as well as hematopoietic cell differentiation and proliferation. A role for Syk in regulating normal cellular functions in nonhematopoietic cells is increasingly recognized. We have shown previously robust Syk expression in airway epithelium, where it regulates the early inflammatory response to human rhinovirus (HRV) infections, and HRV cell entry by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. To test the hypothesis that Syk plays a role in modulating airway epithelial cell proliferation, migration, and production of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-8, we studied the BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cell line and primary human airway epithelia from normal and asthmatic donors using Syk-specific pharmacologic inhibitors and small interfering RNA. Using an in vitro "wounding" model, we demonstrated significant impairment of "wound" closure after treatment with the Syk inhibitors N4-(2,2-dimethyl-3-oxo-4H-pyrid[1,4]oxazin-6-yl)-5-fluoro-N2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2,4-pyrimidinediamine (R406) and 2-[7-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidin-5-ylamino]-nicotinamide dihydrochloride (BAY61-3606), overexpression of the kinase-inactive Syk(K396R) mutant, and Syk knockdown by small interfering RNA. HRV infection also impaired wound healing, an effect that was partly Syk-dependent because wound healing was impaired further when HRV infection occurred in the presence of Syk inhibition. Further investigation of potential regulatory mechanisms revealed that inhibition of Syk suppressed HRV-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression while promoting the activation of caspase-3, a mediator of epithelial cell apoptosis. Together, these results indicate that Syk plays a role in promoting epithelial cell proliferation and migration, while mitigating the effects of apoptosis.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 02/2012; 340(2):277-85. DOI:10.1124/jpet.111.186429 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF) 2 kinase (eEF2K) is a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. We recently demonstrated that eEF2K protein increases in mesenteric artery from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Pathogenesis of hypertension is regulated in part by vascular inflammation. We tested the hypothesis whether eEF2K mediates vascular inflammatory responses and development of hypertension. In vascular endothelial cells, small interfering RNA (siRNA) against eEF2K inhibited induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and endothelial-selectin as well as monocyte adhesion by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (10 ng/ml). eEF2K siRNA inhibited phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-kappa (NF-κ)B p65 as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by TNF-α. In vascular smooth muscle cells, eEF2K siRNA also inhibited VCAM-1 induction and phosphorylation of JNK and NF-κB by TNF-α. In vivo, increased blood pressure in SHR and ROS production, induction of inflammatory molecules and hypertrophy in SHR superior mesenteric artery were reduced by an eEF2K inhibitor, NH125 (500 μg/kg/day). In SHR superior mesenteric artery, impairment of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was normalized by NH125. The present results for the first time demonstrate that eEF2K mediates TNF-α-induced vascular inflammation via ROS-dependent mechanism, which is at least partly responsible for the development of hypertension in SHR.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 06/2013; 305(5). DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00373.2013 · 4.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Effect of long term cholesterol diet withdrawal on accelerated atherosclerosis in iliac artery of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits has not been explored so far. Atherosclerosis was thus induced in rabbits by a combination of balloon injury and atherogenic diet (AD) (1% cholesterol and 6% peanut oil) feeding for 8 weeks (baseline) followed by chow diet (CD) feeding for 4, 8, 16, 32, 50 and 64 weeks. The plaque characterization was done using histology, real time RT-PCR and vasoreactivity studies. Significant elevation in plasma lipids with AD feeding was normalized following 16 weeks of CD feeding. However, baseline comparison showed advanced plaque features even after 8 weeks of CD period with significant elevation in intima/media thickness ratio and plaque area later showing reduction at 50 and 64 weeks CD periods. Lesion lipid accumulation and CD68 positivity was maintained till 16 weeks of CD feeding which significantly reduced from 32 to 64 weeks CD periods. Baseline comparison showed significant increase in ground substance, MMP-9 and significant decrease in α-actin and collagen content at 8 weeks CD period indicating features of unstable plaque. These features regressed up to 64 weeks of CD. Partial restoration of functional vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation was seen after 64 weeks of CD feeding. mRNA expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1, collagen type I and III, MMP-9, TIMP-1, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and eNOS supported the above findings. The study thus reveals insights into initial plaque instability and subsequent regression on AD withdrawal in this model. These results are suggestive of an appropriate window for drug intervention for plaque stability/regression and restenosis as well as improves understanding of plaque regression phenomenon in this model.PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77037. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077037 · 3.53 Impact Factor