Serum levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) shed from its membrane-bound form are elevated in hypertension. This study clarified the effects of sVCAM-1 on vascular responses in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs).
Boyden chamber, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and ex vivo aortic ring assays for migration and proliferation, and Western blot for the kinase activity were used.
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were compared functionally. sVCAM-1 increased RASMC migration and proliferation, which were greater in SHR compared with WKY rats. RASMCs expressed the very late antigen 4alpha receptor integrin with no difference between SHR and WKY rats. Inhibitors of phosphoinositide kinase 3 (PI3K) and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and small interference RNA-Syk abolished the sVCAM-1-induced migration, proliferation and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. The phosphorylation of Syk was significantly greater in RASMCs from SHR than from WKY rats. sVCAM-1 increased aortic sprout outgrowth, which was inhibited by inhibitors of PI3K and Syk.
This study suggests that sVCAM-1 promotes the RASMC migration and proliferation via the focal adhesion kinase pathway regulated by Syk and PI3K, and the altered sVCAM-1-induced responses during hypertension are closely associated with the increments in intracellular signal transmission.
"Secondly, presupposing that VCAM-1 protein expression follows a similar trend, then we may be trying to figure out reparative processes in which VCAM-1 might be playing a role. It is possible that VCAM-1 might be playing a reparative role via SMC migration  during repairing of medial layer in Reg 64 week group. Thirdly, an artery specific response cannot be ruled out. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effect of long term cholesterol diet withdrawal on accelerated atherosclerosis in iliac artery of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits has not been explored so far. Atherosclerosis was thus induced in rabbits by a combination of balloon injury and atherogenic diet (AD) (1% cholesterol and 6% peanut oil) feeding for 8 weeks (baseline) followed by chow diet (CD) feeding for 4, 8, 16, 32, 50 and 64 weeks. The plaque characterization was done using histology, real time RT-PCR and vasoreactivity studies. Significant elevation in plasma lipids with AD feeding was normalized following 16 weeks of CD feeding. However, baseline comparison showed advanced plaque features even after 8 weeks of CD period with significant elevation in intima/media thickness ratio and plaque area later showing reduction at 50 and 64 weeks CD periods. Lesion lipid accumulation and CD68 positivity was maintained till 16 weeks of CD feeding which significantly reduced from 32 to 64 weeks CD periods. Baseline comparison showed significant increase in ground substance, MMP-9 and significant decrease in α-actin and collagen content at 8 weeks CD period indicating features of unstable plaque. These features regressed up to 64 weeks of CD. Partial restoration of functional vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation was seen after 64 weeks of CD feeding. mRNA expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1, collagen type I and III, MMP-9, TIMP-1, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and eNOS supported the above findings. The study thus reveals insights into initial plaque instability and subsequent regression on AD withdrawal in this model. These results are suggestive of an appropriate window for drug intervention for plaque stability/regression and restenosis as well as improves understanding of plaque regression phenomenon in this model.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77037. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077037 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue eosinophilia is one of the hallmarks of allergic diseases and Th2-type immune responses including asthma. Adhesion molecules are known to play an important role in the accumulation of eosinophils in allergic inflammatory foci, and they contribute to eosinophil activation. Elevated levels of the soluble forms of adhesion molecules in the body fluid of asthmatic patients have been observed, although their pathophysiological significance remains to be fully elucidated.
Peripheral blood eosinophils were purified, and the effect of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) on eosinophil migration was investigated using in vitro systems.
We found that sVCAM-1 (1 to 10 mug/ml) induced eosinophil chemotaxis, rather than chemokinesis, in a concentration-dependent fashion. In addition, sVCAM-1 induced cell shape change and actin polymerization, which are necessary for cell movement. Manipulations with very late antigen (VLA)-4-neutralizing antibody and signal inhibitors indicated that the sVCAM-1-induced chemotaxis was mediated through ligand-dependent activation of tyrosine kinase Src, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK. Rapid phosphorylation of these signaling molecules was observed using a bead-based multiplex assay.
Our results raise the possibility of sVCAM-1 in the fluid phase as a significant contributor to the heightened eosinophilic inflammatory response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the migration ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the context of wound healing. We also explored the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways in the migration of MSCs. MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow and cultured. Immunocytochemistry, Western blotting, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to observe the effect of TNF-alpha on the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in MSCs. The chemotaxis effect of TNF-alpha on MSCs was investigated by the trans-well system and the inhibition effect of TNF-alpha using its antibody. Western blotting analysis was used to observe the activation of JAK-STAT and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways, and ERK was inhibited with PD98059 and p38 with SB203580 to observe the effect of TNF-alpha on MSC migration and ICAM-1 expression. The expression of ICAM-1 could be up-regulated by 50 microg/L TNF-alpha (p<0.05), whereas that of VCAM-1 remained unchanged (p>0.05). Also, TNF-alpha showed a chemotaxis effect by enhancing the migration ability of MSCs (p<0.05). TNF-alpha at 50 microg/L increased the expression of phospho-ERK and phospho-p38, and SB203580, but not PD98059, could suppress the chemotaxis effect and up-regulation of ICAM-1 induced by TNF-alpha in MSCs (p<0.05). Thus, TNF-alpha could up-regulate the expression of ICAM-1 in MSCs and enhance the cells' migration ability, and the p38 signaling pathway might be involved in the TNF-alpha-induced migration ability for a role in wound repair and regeneration.
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