Long-term results of the AIEOP-ALL-95 Trial for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: insight on the prognostic value of DNA index in the framework of Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster based chemotherapy.
ABSTRACT Between May 1995 and August 2000 the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica conducted the ALL-95 study for risk-directed, Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster (BFM) -oriented therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, aimed at exploring treatment reduction in standard-risk patients (SR) and intensification during continuation therapy in intermediate-risk patients (IR) as randomized questions and treatment intensification in high-risk patients (HR). The prognostic value of DNA index was explored in this setting.
A total of 1,744 patients were enrolled (115, SR; 1,385, IR; and 244, HR). SR patients (DNA index >/= 1.16 and < 1.60; age, 1 to 5 years; and WBC < 20,000, non-T-immunophenotype, with no high-risk features) received a reduced induction therapy (no anthracyclines); IR patients were randomly assigned to receive or not receive vincristine and dexamethasone pulses during maintenance; HR therapy was based on a conventional BFM schedule intensified with three chemotherapy blocks followed by a double reinduction phase.
The event-free survival and overall survival probabilities at 10 years for the entire group were 72.5% (SE, 1.3) and 83.6% (SE, 0.9); 85.0% (SE, 3.4) and 95.5% (SE, 2.0) in SR, 75.1% (SE, 1.5) and 87.5% (SE, 0.9) in IR, and 51.0% (SE, 3.2) and 57.2% (SE, 3.3) in HR patients, respectively. Patients with a favorable DNA index had superior EFS in both IR (83.8% [2.7%] v 73.9% [1.7%]) and in HR (67.8% [9.4%] and 49.6% [3.5%]). Of the six patients with DNA index less than 0.8, only one remained in remission.
Favorable DNA index was associated with a better prognosis in IR and HR patients defined by presenting clinical criteria and treatment with a BFM-oriented chemotherapy.
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ABSTRACT: The DNA index (DI) is a prognostic factor in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The accuracy of DI measurement is important for treatment stratification: hyperdiploidy with DI > or = 1.16 is predictive of favorable prognosis whereas hypodiploidy is associated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to validate the accuracy of the DI measured by flow cytometry (FCM) by comparison with the karyotype. From samples of 112 childhood ALL, we created a formula to calculate a theoretical DNA index (tDI) based on the blast cell karyotype, taking into account the additional or missing chromosome material of the major clone. FCM DI correlated with tDI calculated from karyotype (R = 0.987) and with modal chromosome number (DI = 0.0202 x Modal NB + 0.0675 and R = 0.984). In three cases a hypodiploid blast cell population was detected by FCM, while only the duplicated clone was identified by the karyotype. The strong correlation between tDI and DI validates the accuracy of FCM quantification, which is technically fast on fresh or frozen samples. If the karyotype is essential to analyze chromosomal abnormalities, FCM provides complementary information in aneuploid ALLs, either by confirming the cytogenetic data or by detecting additional clones not identified when only using cytogenetic data.International journal of laboratory hematology 09/2009; 32(3):288-98. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The treatment of childhood B-cell-precursor ALL after isolated-extramedullary or late relapse is controversial. Most approaches are based on chemotherapy or allogeneic transplantation. The aim of this report is to assess the long-term outcome of children with 'low-risk' relapsed ALL treated according to a prospective purified auto-transplantation protocol. From January 1997 to March 2004, at a single pediatric Center, 30 ALL consecutive children, lacking an HLA-identical sibling, were treated according to the autologous purified peripheral blood stem cell protocol after isolated-extramedullary (7) or late medullary (24) relapse. After the 'DIAVE' mobilizing regimen a median of 11.6 × 10(6)CD34+/Kg (range 3.9-27.4) were collected. Leukaphereses were depleted by 99% of CD19+cells (range 98-100) by means of a double step immunological purification. The conditioning regimen included TBI. No early severe complications nor transplant-related deaths occurred; late effects, as expected, mostly consisted in endocrinological issues and were assessed at a median follow-up of 8.5 years. Five-year-EFS and survival were 68.5% (s.e. 7.9) and 85.7% (s.e. 5.9), respectively, for the 35 eligible patients and 70.0% (s.e. 8.4) and 86.7% (s.e. 6.2) for the 30 patients actually transplanted as per protocol. The outcome of this series favorably compares with historical data regarding both autologous transplantation and standard salvage chemotherapy.Bone marrow transplantation 02/2011; 46(2):217-26. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HOX genes play an important role in both normal lymphopoiesis and leukemogenesis. However, HOX expression patterns in leukemia cells compared to normal lymphoid progenitors have not been systematically studied in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) subtypes. The RNA expression levels of HOXA, HOXB, and CDX1/2 genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR in a cohort of 61 diagnostic pediatric ALL samples and FACS-sorted subpopulations of normal lymphoid progenitors. The RNA expression of HOXA7-10, HOXA13, and HOXB2-4 genes was exclusively detected in leukemic cells and immature progenitors. The RNA expression of HOXB6 and CDX2 genes was exclusively detected in leukemic cells but not in B-lineage cells at any of the studied developmental stages. HOXA3-4, HOXA7, and HOXB3-4 genes were differentially expressed between BCP-ALL and T-ALL subgroups, and among genotypically defined MLL/AF4, TEL/AML1, BCR/ABL, hyperdiploid and normal karyotype subgroups. However, this differential expression did not define specific clusters in hierarchical cluster analysis. HOXA7 gene was low expressed at the RNA level in patients with hyperdiploid leukemia, whereas HOXB7 and CDX2 genes were low expressed in TEL/AML1-positive and BCR/ABL-positive cases, respectively. In contrast to previous findings in acute myeloid leukemia, high HOXA RNA expression was associated with an excellent prognosis in Cox's regression model (P = 0.03). In MLL/AF4-positive ALL, lower HOXA RNA expression correlated with the methylation status of their promoters. HOX gene RNA expression cannot discriminate leukemia subgroups or relative maturity of leukemic cells. However, HOXA RNA expression correlates with prognosis, and particular HOX genes are expressed in specific genotypically characterized subgroups.Pediatric Blood & Cancer 12/2010; 55(6):1072-82. · 2.35 Impact Factor