These days it has been increasingly recognized that mast cells (MCs) are critical components of host defense against pathogens. In this study, we have provided the first evidence that MCs can kill bacteria by entrapping them in extracellular structures similar to the extracellular traps described for neutrophils (NETs). We took advantage of the ability of MCs to kill the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes by a phagocytosis-independent mechanism in order to characterize the extracellular antimicrobial activity of MCs. Close contact of bacteria and MCs was required for full antimicrobial activity. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy revealed that S pyogenes was entrapped by extracellular structures produced by MCs (MCETs), which are composed of DNA, histones, tryptase, and the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. Disruption of MCETs significantly reduced the antimicrobial effect of MCs, suggesting that intact extracellular webs are critical for effective inhibition of bacterial growth. Similar to NETs, production of MCETs was mediated by a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death mechanism accompanied by disruption of the nuclear envelope, which can be induced after stimulation of MCs with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), H(2)O(2), or bacterial pathogens. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of antimicrobial extracellular traps formation by an immune cell population other than neutrophils.
"Although splenic fibrocytes lack phagocytic activity, they have developed alternative mechanisms to combat infection. First, splenic fibrocytes confine bacterial spread at the site of infection by entrapment of bacteria in extracellular DNA-based structures ( " DNA traps " ; Kisseleva et al., 2011), a mechanism previously identified only in neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, and macrophages (Brinkmann et al., 2004; von Kockritz-Blickwede et al., 2008; Yousefi et al., 2008; Chow et al., 2010). Fibrocytes kill bacteria by secretion of cathelicidin into the DNA-based framework (Kisseleva et al., 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver fibrosis results from dysregulation of normal wound healing, inflammation, activation of myofibroblasts, and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). Chronic liver injury causes death of hepatocytes and formation of apoptotic bodies, which in turn, release factors that recruit inflammatory cells (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes) to the injured liver. Hepatic macrophages (Kupffer cells) produce TGFβ1 and other inflammatory cytokines that activate Collagen Type I producing myofibroblasts, which are not present in the normal liver. Secretion of TGFβ1 and activation of myofibroblasts play a critical role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis of different etiologies. Although the composition of fibrogenic myofibroblasts varies dependent on etiology of liver injury, liver resident hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts are the major source of myofibroblasts in fibrotic liver in both experimental models of liver fibrosis and in patients with liver disease. Several studies have demonstrated that hepatic fibrosis can reverse upon cessation of liver injury. Regression of liver fibrosis is accompanied by the disappearance of fibrogenic myofibroblasts followed by resorption of the fibrous scar. Myofibroblasts either apoptose or inactivate into a quiescent-like state (e.g., stop collagen production and partially restore expression of lipogenic genes). Resolution of liver fibrosis is associated with recruitment of macrophages that secrete matrix-degrading enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase, collagenases) and are responsible for fibrosis resolution. However, prolonged/repeated liver injury may cause irreversible crosslinking of ECM and formation of uncleavable collagen fibers. Advanced fibrosis progresses to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The current review will summarize the role and contribution of different cell types to populations of fibrogenic myofibroblasts in fibrotic liver.
Frontiers in Pharmacology 07/2014; 5:167. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2014.00167 · 3.80 Impact Factor
"Extracellular traps (ETs Q2 ) are produced by several immune cells in humans and mice including neutrophils , eosinophils , mast cells  and monocytes/macrophages . The release of ETs is a distinct process of cell death termed 'Etosis'  that results in extrusion of a fibrous network of nuclear  or mitochondrial DNA , histones and a concentration of granular proteins. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutrophils are multifaceted cells that are often the immune system’s first line of defense. Human and murine cells release extracellular DNA traps (ETs) in response to several pathogens and diseases. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is crucial to trapping and killing extracellular pathogens. Aside from neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils also release ETs. We hypothesized that ETs serve as a mechanism of ensnaring the large and highly motile helminth parasite Strongyloides stercoralis thereby providing a static target for the immune response. We demonstrated that S. stercoralis larvae trigger the release of ETs by human neutrophils and macrophages. Analysis of NETs revealed that NETs trapped but did not kill larvae. Induction of NETs was essential for larval killing by human but not murine neutrophils and macrophages in vitro. In mice, extracellular traps were induced following infection with S. stercoralis larvae and were present in the microenvironment of worms being killed in vivo. These findings demonstrate that NETs ensnare the parasite facilitating larval killing by cells of the immune system.
Microbes and Infection 06/2014; 16(6):502-511. DOI:10.1016/j.micinf.2014.02.012 · 2.86 Impact Factor
"Besides chromatin/DNA, the major components of NETs are nuclear histones and granular components such as NE, MPO, lactoferrin, and gelatinase , , . These molecules are of high relevance concerning the microbiocidal mechanism of NETs , , , . Applying co-localization analyses concerning extracellular DNA and histones (H3), NE or MPO in tachyzoite-entrapping structures we confirmed these classical characteristics of NETs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Besnoitia besnoiti infection in cattle is an important emerging protozoan disease in Europe causing economic losses and severe clinical signs, such as generalized dermatitis, orchitis, and vulvitis in affected animals. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation was recently demonstrated as an important effector mechanism of PMN acting against several invading pathogens. In the present study, interactions of bovine PMN with tachyzoites of B. besnoiti were investigated in this respect in vitro. For the demonstration and quantification of NETs, extracellular DNA was stained by Sytox Orange or Pico Green. Fluorescent illustrations as well as scanning electron microscopy analyses (SEM) showed PMN-promoted NET formation rapidly being induced upon contact with B. besnoiti tachyzoites. Co-localization of extracellular DNA with histones, neutrophil elastase (NE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in parasite entrapping structures confirmed the classical characteristics of NET. Exposure of PMN to viable, UV attenuated and dead tachyzoites showed a significant induction of NET formation, but even tachyzoite homogenates significantly promoted NETs when compared to negative controls. NETs were abolished by DNase treatment and were reduced after PMN preincubation with NADPH oxidase-, NE- and MPO-inhibitors. Tachyzoite-triggered NET formation led to parasite entrapment as quantitative assays indicated that about one third of tachyzoites were immobilized in NETs. In consequence, tachyzoites were hampered from active invasion of host cells. Thus, transfer of tachyzoites, previously being confronted with PMN, to adequate host cells resulted in significantly reduced infection rates when compared to PMN-free infection controls. To our knowledge, we here report for the first time B. besnoiti-induced NET formation. Our results indicate that PMN-triggered extracellular traps may represent an important effector mechanism of the host early innate immune response against B. besnoiti which may lead to diminishment of initial parasite infection rates during the acute infection phase.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e91415. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0091415 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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