Phagocytosis-independent antimicrobial activity of mast cells by means of extracellular trap formation.
ABSTRACT These days it has been increasingly recognized that mast cells (MCs) are critical components of host defense against pathogens. In this study, we have provided the first evidence that MCs can kill bacteria by entrapping them in extracellular structures similar to the extracellular traps described for neutrophils (NETs). We took advantage of the ability of MCs to kill the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes by a phagocytosis-independent mechanism in order to characterize the extracellular antimicrobial activity of MCs. Close contact of bacteria and MCs was required for full antimicrobial activity. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy revealed that S pyogenes was entrapped by extracellular structures produced by MCs (MCETs), which are composed of DNA, histones, tryptase, and the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. Disruption of MCETs significantly reduced the antimicrobial effect of MCs, suggesting that intact extracellular webs are critical for effective inhibition of bacterial growth. Similar to NETs, production of MCETs was mediated by a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death mechanism accompanied by disruption of the nuclear envelope, which can be induced after stimulation of MCs with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), H(2)O(2), or bacterial pathogens. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of antimicrobial extracellular traps formation by an immune cell population other than neutrophils.
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ABSTRACT: Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are critical front line contributors to host defense against invasive bacterial infection. These immune factors have direct killing activity toward microbes, but many pathogens are able to resist their effects. Group A Streptococcus, group B Streptococcus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are among the most common pathogens of humans and display a variety of phenotypic adaptations to resist CAMPs. Common themes of CAMP resistance mechanisms among the pathogenic streptococci are repulsion, sequestration, export, and destruction. Each pathogen has a different array of CAMP-resistant mechanisms, with invasive disease potential reflecting the utilization of several mechanisms that may act in synergy. Here we discuss recent progress in identifying the sources of CAMP resistance in the medically important Streptococcus genus. Further study of these mechanisms can contribute to our understanding of streptococcal pathogenesis, and may provide new therapeutic targets for therapy and disease prevention. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbamem.2015.02.010 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of fibrocytes in 1994 by Dr. Bucala and colleagues, these bone marrow (BM)-derived collagen Type I producing CD45(+) cells remain the most fascinating cells of the hematopoietic system. Despite recent reports on the emerging contribution of fibrocytes to fibrosis of parenchymal and non-parenchymal organs and tissues, fibrocytes remain the most understudied pro-fibrogenic cellular population. In the past years fibrocytes were implicated in the pathogenesis of liver, skin, lung, and kidney fibrosis by giving rise to collagen type I producing cells/myofibroblasts. Hence, the role of fibrocytes in fibrosis is not well defined since different studies often contain controversial results on the number of fibrocytes recruited to the site of injury versus the number of fibrocyte-derived myofibroblasts in the same fibrotic organ. Furthermore, many studies were based on the in vitro characterization of fibrocytes formed after outgrowth of BM and/or peripheral blood cultures. Therefore, the fibrocyte function(s) still remain(s) lack of understanding, mostly due to (I) the lack of mouse models that can provide complimentary in vivo real-time and cell fate mapping studies of the dynamic differentiation of fibrocytes and their progeny into collagen type I producing cells (and/or possibly, other cell types of the hematopoietic system); (II) the complexity of hematopoietic cell differentiation pathways in response to various stimuli; (III) the high plasticity of hematopoietic cells. Here we summarize the current understanding of the role of CD45(+) collagen type I(+) BM-derived cells in the pathogenesis of liver injury. Based on data obtained from various organs undergoing fibrogenesis or other type of chronic injury, here we also discuss the most recent evidence supporting the critical role of fibrocytes in the mediation of pro-fibrogenic and/or pro-inflammatory responses.
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ABSTRACT: Recent insights into the specific type of cell death characteristic of neutrophils, called NETosis, are summarized. NETosis is a process of generation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs), whose main components are DNA, granular antimicrobial peptides, and nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. The structure of NETs determines their bactericidal, fungicidal, antiprotozoal, and antiviral properties. Therefore, NETs production by neutrophils is an essential immune response to infection. In addition to the antimicrobial function, NETosis is involved in many inflammatory and autoimmune disorders and participates in the regulation of noninfectious processes. The molecular mechanisms of NET formation, bactericidal effect, and involvement in some noninfectious, autoimmune, and inflammatory processes are discussed in detail in this review.Biochemistry (Moscow) 12/2014; 79(12):1286-96. DOI:10.1134/S0006297914120025 · 1.35 Impact Factor