Hepatic steatosis in chronic hepatitis C: baseline host and viral characteristics and influence on response to therapy with peginterferon α-2a plus ribavirin
ABSTRACT Hepatic steatosis is common in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients and may be associated with the metabolic syndrome. We studied steatosis in patients treated with peginterferonalpha-2a plus ribavirin. Forty-five of 207 patients (22%) had >5% hepatic steatosis at baseline. Significantly more patients with steatosis than without were HCV genotype 3 (51%vs 14%; P < 0.0001) had higher HCV-RNA (P = 0.0045), body weight (P = 0.0176), body mass index (BMI, P = 0.0352) and serum triglycerides (TG) (P = 0.0364), hypertriglyceridaemia (P = 0.0009), elevated blood pressure/history of hypertension (P = 0.0229) and lower cholesterol (P = 0.0009). Significant steatosis predictors were genotype 3 (OR 9.04, 95% CI 3.85-21.21, P < 0.0001), HCV-RNA (OR 2.96, 1.49-5.88, P = 0.0019) and triglycerides (OR 1.06, 1.02-1.11, P = 0.0071). In genotype 3 patients, HCV-RNA was the only significant predictor (OR 11.15, 2.60-47.81, P = 0.0012). In non-genotype 3 patients, hypertriglyceridaemia was the only significant predictor (OR 1.07, 1.02-1.12, P = 0.0041). 134 of 207 patients (65%) achieved an sustained virological response (SVR) with peginterferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin, similar to the overall response rate. In genotype 3 patients with an SVR, steatosis decreased from 48% to 13% (baseline to end-point). No change was seen in the steatosis rate in non-genotype 3 patients with an SVR. This large and comprehensive analysis of a large data base from a multinational trial further adds to the observations that chronic HCV is associated with hepatic steatosis in approximately a fifth of patients. Further, features of the metabolic syndrome are associated with hepatic steatosis in most of these patients. Steatosis is significantly more common in genotype 3 compared with other genotypes, and in these patients, an SVR is associated with steatosis clearance.
SourceAvailable from: Fabio Nascimbeni[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a successful pathogen on the grounds that it exploits its host's metabolism to build up viral particles; moreover it favours its own survival by inducing chronic disease and the development of specific anatomic changes in the infected organ. Steatosis, therefore, is associated with HCV infection by necessity rather than by chance alone. Approximately 6% of HCV patients have steatohepatitis. Interestingly, HCV steatosis occurs in the setting of multiple metabolic abnormalities (hyperuricemia, reversible hypocholesterolemia, insulin resistance, arterial hypertension and expansion of visceral adipose tissue) collectively referred to as "hepatitis C-associated dysmetabolic syndrome" (HCADS). General, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-like, mechanisms of steatogenesis (including increased availability of lipogenic substrates and de novo lipogenesis; decreased oxidation of fatty substrates and export of fatty substrates) are shared by all HCV genotypes. However, genotype 3 seemingly amplifies such steatogenic molecular mechanisms reported to occur in NAFLD via more profound changes in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha; sterol regulatory element-binding proteins and phosphatase and tensin homologue. HCV steatosis has a remarkable clinical impact in as much as it is an acknowledged risk factor for accelerated fibrogenesis; for impaired treatment response to interferon and ribavirin; and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent data, moreover, suggest that HCV-steatosis contributes to premature atherogenesis via both direct and indirect mechanisms. In conclusion, HCV steatosis fulfills all expected requirements necessary to perpetuate the HCV life cycle. A better understanding of the physiology of HCADS will likely result in a more successful handling of disease with improved antiviral success rates.World Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2014; 20(23):7089-7103. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i23.7089 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Twenty-four weeks of treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 or 3 infection produces a sustained virologic response (SVR) in 70%-80% of patients. We performed a randomized, double-blind, phase 2b study to assess whether adding daclatasvir, an NS5A inhibitor active against these genotypes, improves efficacy and shortens therapy.Gastroenterology 10/2014; 148(2). DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2014.10.007 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Concomitant steatosis in chronic hepatitis C is associated with fibrosis and unfavorable treatment outcome. Central zone injury in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) manifests as central portalization, with centrizonal microvessels and ductular reaction. We investigated whether central portalization in steatotic HCV biopsies would identify patients with metabolic risk factors for NASH. Liver biopsies with chronic hepatitis C and >10% steatosis (n = 65) were evaluated for the degree of steatosis, zonation of steatosis, fibrosis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score. The presence of centrizonal microvessels, sinusoidal capillarization, ductular reaction, and CK7 positive intermediate-phenotype hepatocytes were evaluated by CD34 and CK7 immunostain. The degree of steatosis and fibrosis showed a positive correlation. Additional positive correlations were noted between centrizonal angiogenesis and NAFLD activity score and central portalization and fibrosis. However, neither central portalization nor zonation of steatosis identified patients with metabolic risk factors for NASH. Therefore, central portalization cannot be used as a surrogate marker to identify patients with metabolic risk factors for NASH in steatotic HCV biopsies. The mechanism of centrizonal injury in steatotic HCV hepatitis is not solely attributable to the metabolic risk factors for NASH.11/2014; 2014:329297. DOI:10.1155/2014/329297