Genetic background of celiac disease and its clinical implications.
ABSTRACT Celiac disease (CD) is a complex genetic disorder with multiple contributing genes. Linkage studies have identified several genomic regions that probably contain CD susceptibility genes. The most important genetic factors identified are HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8, which are necessary but not sufficient to predispose to CD. The associations found in non-HLA genomewide linkage and association studies are much weaker. This might be because a large number of non-HLA genes contributes to the pathogenesis of CD. Hence, the contribution of a single predisposing non-HLA gene might be quite modest. Practically all CD patients carry HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8, while the absence of these molecules has a negative predictive value for CD close to 100%. Genetic risk profiles for CD would be helpful in clinical practice for predicting disease susceptibility and progression.
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ABSTRACT: Celiac disease is an intestinal autoimmune disorder, triggered by ingestion of a gluten-containing diet in genetically susceptible individuals. The genetic predisposition is related to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes, especially HLA-DQ2-positive patients. The prevalence of celiac disease has been estimated to be ~1% in Europe and the USA, but it is rarer and/or underdiagnosed in Asia. We report a case of celiac disease in a predisposed patient, with a HLA-DQ2 heterodimer, and Graves disease that was treated successfully with a gluten-free diet. A 47-year-old woman complained of persistent chronic diarrhea and weight loss over a 9-month period. Results of all serological tests and stool exams were negative. However, the patient was found to carry the HLA DQ2 heterodimer. Symptoms improved after a gluten-free diet was initiated. The patient has been followed and has suffered no recurrence of symptoms while on the gluten-free diet. An overall diagnosis of celiac disease was made in a genetically predisposed patient (HLA-DQ2 heterodimer) with Graves disease.07/2014; 30(1). DOI:10.3803/EnM.2015.30.1.105
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ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is a lifelong disorder. Patients are at increased risk of complications and comorbidity. We conducted a review of the literature on patient support and information in CD and aim to issue recommendations about patient information with regards to CD. We searched PubMed for English-language articles published between 1900 and June 2014, containing terms related to costs, economics of CD, or education and CD. Papers deemed relevant by any of the participating authors were included in the study. No quantitative synthesis of data was performed. Instead we formulated a consensus view of the information that should be offered to all patients with CD. There are few randomized clinical trials examining the effect of patient support in CD. Patients and their families receive information from many sources. It is important that health care personnel guide the patient through the plethora of facts and comments on the Internet. An understanding of CD is likely to improve dietary adherence. Patients should be educated about current knowledge about risk factors for CD, as well as the increased risk of complications. Patients should also be advised to avoid other health hazards, such as smoking. Many patients are eager to learn about future non-dietary treatments of CD. This review also comments on novel therapies but it is important to stress that no such treatment is available at present. Based on mostly observational data, we suggest that patient support and information should be an integral part of the management of CD, and is likely to affect the outcome of CD.12/2014; 3(2). DOI:10.1177/2050640614562599
- Open Journal of Statistics 05/2015; DOI:10.4236/ojs.2015.53023