Morbidity before and after HAART initiation in Sub-Saharan African HIV-infected adults

Programme PAC-CI, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses (Impact Factor: 2.33). 11/2007; 23(11):1338-47. DOI: 10.1089/aid.2006.0308
Source: PubMed


The incidence and determinants of severe morbidity recurrence in sub-Saharan African HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have never been reported. In a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected adults in Abidjan the association of severe morbidity occurrence and recurrence with follow-up CD4 counts and ART on/off status was analyzed by means of multivariate failure analysis for recurrent events (Prentice, Williams, and Peterson model). A total of 608 patients (median CD4 290/mm3 ) was followed off ART for 1824 person-years (PY). Of these 187 started HAART (median CD4 174/mm3 ) and were followed for 328 PY. The incidence of first, second, and third severe morbidity events was 40.6/100 PY, 68.4/100 PY, and 93.9/100 PY during the off-ART period, and 28.4/100 PY, 39.4/100 PY, and 37.6/100 PY during the on-ART period, respectively. The rates of recurrences were higher than the rates of first episodes for almost all diseases, even after stratifying by CD4 count and by ART on/off status. In multivariate analysis, the time-updated CD4 count was independently associated with increasing rates of morbidity first events and recurrences, after adjustment on other covariates (p > 10(4) ). By contrast, there was no association between the ART on/off status and the morbidity rates after adjustment for CD4 count (p = 0.37). Introducing ART led to a clear reduction in morbidity, mainly related to the ART-induced increase in CD4 count. In HIV-infected patients on ART, the incidence of severe morbidity varied with the past history of morbidity. The past history of morbidity should be taken into account when comparing HIV morbidity rates before and after ART initiation.

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    • "This first group clearly illustrates the burden of common infectious diseases in our population [8,18]. These diseases are both communicable diseases and opportunistic diseases, meaning that they are frequent in the general population, more frequent in HIV-infected patients, and of increasing incidence with decreasing CD4 count [13,19,20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In resource-limited settings, scaling-up antiretroviral treatment (ART) has required the involvement of decentralized health facilities with limited equipment. We estimated the incidence of serious morbidity among HIV-infected adults receiving ART in one of these HIV routine care center in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a prospective study at the Centre Medical de Suivi des Donneurs de Sang (CMSDS), which is affiliated with the National Centre for Blood Transfusion in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. Adult patients infected with HIV-1 or HIV-1/HIV-2 who initiated ART between January 2003 and December 2008 were eligible for the study. Standardized clinical data were collected at each visit. Serious morbidity was defined as a new episode of malaria, WHO stage 3-4 event, ANRS grade 3-4 adverse event, or any event leading to death or to hospitalization. 1008 adults, 67% women, with a median age of 35 years, and a median pre-ART CD4 count of 186/mm3 started ART and were followed for a median of 17.3 months. The overall incidences of loss to follow-up, death, and attrition were 6.2/100 person-years (PY) [95% CI 5.1-7.2], 2.3/100 PY [95% CI 1.6-2.9], and 8.1/100 PY [95% CI 7.0-9.4], respectively. The incidence of first serious event was 11.5/100 PY overall, 15.9/100 PY within the first year and 8.3/100 PY thereafter. The most frequently documented specific diagnoses were malaria, tuberculosis, bacterial septicemia and bacterial pneumonia. Among HIV-infected adults followed in routine conditions in a West African primary care clinic, we recorded a high incidence of serious morbidity during the first year on ART. Providing care centers with diagnostic tools and standardizing data collection are necessary steps to improve the quality of care in primary care facilities in sub-Saharan Africa.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 12/2013; 13(1):607. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-13-607 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    • "By far, the impact of the disease has been greatest in sub-Saharan Africa, which is home to 70% of the people living with HIV (PLHIV) globally.[1] With the introduction of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and improved care for a number of ART-naïve populations, an increase in the life expectancy of PLHIV has been documented in both developed and developing countries.[23] As HIV-infected patients live longer and suffer less infective complications, non-infective conditions have emerged as important complications of the disease and its treatment.[4] "
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment are associated with lipid abnormalities. Data on lipid profile of treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients in Nigeria are limited, and available studies did not exclude the role of major host-related risk factors for dyslipidemia. We assessed the lipid profile of normotensive, non-diabetic, and non-obese treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients to identify their abnormalities in comparison with age- and sex-matched HIV-negative control. One hundred and six normotensive, non-diabetic, and non-obese HIV positive patients and 98 age-and sex-matched HIV-negative controls had lipid profile estimation in the fasting state. The CD4+ cell count of the HIV-infected patients was also quantified. The median (IQR) triglyceride was significantly higher in HIV-positive patients than in the controls [1.75 (1.30-2.40) mmol/L vs. 1.55 (1.30-1.90) mmol/L, P = 0.01]. HIV-positive patients also had significantly lower mean total cholesterol, TC [4.18 (1.04) mmol/L vs. 4.64 (1.01) mmol/L, P = 0.001] and HDL-C [1.17 (0.35) mmol/L vs. 1.29 (0.43) mmol/L, P = 0.03]. The mean LDL-C [2.20 (0.87) mmol/L vs. 2.19 (0.75) mmol/L, P = 0.97] and TC/HDL-C ratio [3.95 (1.42) vs. 3.84 (1.14) mmol/L, P = 0.52] were similar between the HIV-positive patients and controls. The HIV-infected patients had a significantly higher proportion of subjects with low HDL-C [36.8% (39/106) vs. 23.5% (23/98), P = 0.04] and hypertriglyceridemia [31.1% (33/106) vs. 11.2% (11/98), P = 0.001] while the controls had significantly higher proportion of subjects with hypercholesterolemia [22.4% (22/98) vs. 10.4% (11/106), P = 0.02]. Lower HDL-C was associated with CD4+ cell count < 200 cells/μL (P = 0.02). Lipid abnormalities are common in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients even in the absence of major host-related risk factors for dyslipidemia. HIV-infected patients should, therefore, be routinely screened for lipid disorders before commencement of anti-retroviral therapy.
    03/2013; 3(1):26-30. DOI:10.4103/2141-9248.109468
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    • "Initial distributions of age, sex, and CD4 count were derived from the ACONDA cohort, an observational cohort of HIV-infected adults and a continuation of the ANRS 1203 Cotrame cohort study in Abidjan (Table 1) [18,19]. Incidence of opportunistic infections, HIV-related mortality, and efficacy and toxicity of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis were from ANRS 059 trial data, as well as from the ANRS 1203 and 1220 study cohorts [9,10,20]. Risk of non-HIV–related mortality was from country-specific life tables for Côte d’Ivoire [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background In resource-limited settings, HIV budgets are flattening or decreasing. A policy of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy (ART) after HIV treatment failure was modeled to highlight trade-offs among competing policy goals of optimizing individual and population health outcomes. Methods In settings with two available ART regimens, we assessed two strategies: (1) continue ART after second-line failure (Status Quo) and (2) discontinue ART after second-line failure (Alternative). A computer model simulated outcomes for a single cohort of newly detected, HIV-infected individuals. Projections were fed into a population-level model allowing multiple cohorts to compete for ART with constraints on treatment capacity. In the Alternative strategy, discontinuation of second-line ART occurred upon detection of antiretroviral failure, specified by WHO guidelines. Those discontinuing failed ART experienced an increased risk of AIDS-related mortality compared to those continuing ART. Results At the population level, the Alternative strategy increased the mean number initiating ART annually by 1,100 individuals (+18.7%) to 6,980 compared to the Status Quo. More individuals initiating ART under the Alternative strategy increased total life-years by 15,000 (+2.8%) to 555,000, compared to the Status Quo. Although more individuals received treatment under the Alternative strategy, life expectancy for those treated decreased by 0.7 years (−8.0%) to 8.1 years compared to the Status Quo. In a cohort of treated patients only, 600 more individuals (+27.1%) died by 5 years under the Alternative strategy compared to the Status Quo. Results were sensitive to the timing of detection of ART failure, number of ART regimens, and treatment capacity. Although we believe the results robust in the short-term, this analysis reflects settings where HIV case detection occurs late in the disease course and treatment capacity and the incidence of newly detected patients are stable. Conclusions In settings with inadequate HIV treatment availability, trade-offs emerge between maximizing outcomes for individual patients already on treatment and ensuring access to treatment for all people who may benefit. While individuals may derive some benefit from ART even after virologic failure, the aggregate public health benefit is maximized by providing effective therapy to the greatest number of people. These trade-offs should be explicit and transparent in antiretroviral policy decisions.
    Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation 09/2012; 10(1):12. DOI:10.1186/1478-7547-10-12 · 0.87 Impact Factor
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