Energy expenditure in critically ill infants.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.33). 02/2008; 9(1):121-2. DOI: 10.1097/01.PCC.0000298659.51470.CB
Source: PubMed
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Infants with congenital heart lesions who undergo open heart surgery may experience physiologic and metabolic stress in the postoperative period, leading to altered metabolism and hypercatabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between energy intake and hospital outcomes during the first 10 days following neonatal open heart surgery. Materials and Methods: A post hoc analysis of all patients in a prospective randomized controlled trial was performed. Nutrition intake and hospital outcomes were assessed in 32 infants (40 ± 2.2 weeks, 3.4 ± 0.5 kg) in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care units. Infants received parenteral nutrition (PN) for 1-4 days before and 10 days after open heart surgery. Infants were separated into those who received a cumulative energy intake of <689 kcal (average 63 kcal/kg/d) and those who received an intake ≥689 kcal during postoperative days 0-10. Results: Lower energy intake was associated with a significantly increased duration of artificial ventilation (5 ± 1.2 days), time to chest closure (1.4 ± 0.5 days), time in intensive care (5 ± 1.8 days), and stay in the hospital (25 ± 6.4 days). Lower energy intake was also associated with a significant increase in the length of time infants required PN (8 ± 2.9 days) and longer time to achieve full enteral intake of 100 mL/kg/d (7 ± 2.2 days) and before enteral feeds could be initiated (5 ± 1.5 days). Conclusions: Providing <63 kcal/kg/d to infants after open heart surgery was associated with adverse pediatric intensive care outcomes.
    Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 10/2012; · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine, in a cohort of young children with intestinal failure (IF), if estimates of basal metabolic rate (BMR) by standard equations, approximate measured REE by indirect calorimetry (IC). IC was performed by dilutional canopy technique. REE measurements were compared to standard, age-based estimation equations (WHO) for BMR. Subjects were classified as hypermetabolic (REE > 110% BMR), hypometabolic (REE < 90% BMR), or normal (REE = 90-110% BMR). Twenty-eight IF patients (11 female, 17 male) had an underlying diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 10) or a congenital gastrointestinal defect (n = 18). Median age was 5.3 months. Median (IQR) REE was 46 (42, 58) kcal/kg/day. Median (IQR) total energy intake provided 209 (172, 257)% of REE, with parenteral nutrition providing 76% (23%) of total energy intake. REE was variable, with 39% (n = 11) of measurements hypermetabolic, 39% (n = 11) hypometabolic, and the remaining 21% (n = 6) normal. Although REE was well correlated with estimated BMR (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001), estimated BMR was not consistently an adequate predictor of REE. BMR over- or under-estimated REE by more than 10 kcal/kg/d in 15/28 (54%) patients. REE was not significantly correlated with severity of liver disease, nutritional status, total energy intake or gestational age. Energy expenditure is variable among children with IF and IFALD, with nearly 80% of our cohort exhibiting either hypo- or hypermetabolism. Standard estimation equations frequently do not correctly predict individual REE. Longitudinal studies of energy expenditure and body composition may be needed to guide provision of nutrition regimens.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 12/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of sucrose on pain and biochemical markers of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) degradation and oxidative stress in preterm neonates experiencing a clinically required heel lance. STUDY DESIGN: Preterm neonates that met study criteria (n = 131) were randomized into 3 groups: (1) control; (2) heel lance treated with placebo and non-nutritive sucking; and (3) heel lance treated with sucrose and non-nutritive sucking. Plasma markers of ATP degradation (hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid) and oxidative stress (allantoin) were measured before and after the heel lance. Pain was measured with the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Data were analyzed by the use of repeated-measures ANOVA and Spearman rho. RESULTS: We found significant increases in plasma hypoxanthine and uric acid over time in neonates who received sucrose. We also found a significant negative correlation between pain scores and plasma allantoin concentration in a subgroup of neonates who received sucrose. CONCLUSION: A single dose of oral sucrose, given before heel lance, significantly increased ATP use and oxidative stress in premature neonates. Because neonates are given multiple doses of sucrose per day, randomized trials are needed to examine the effects of repeated sucrose administration on ATP degradation, oxidative stress, and cell injury.
    The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society 06/2012; 13(6):590-597. · 4.22 Impact Factor