Energy expenditure in critically ill infants.
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ABSTRACT: Serum markers of inflammation and of glucose production are known to reflect the immediate metabolic response to injury. We hypothesized that monitoring of the early C-reactive protein (CRP) and blood glucose (BG) concentrations would correlate with clinical morbidity and outcome measures in pediatric trauma patients. A five-year retrospective chart review of pediatric trauma patients admitted to our Level I pediatric trauma center was conducted to establish the relationships between early (first 3 hospital days) serum CRP and BG concentrations, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and hospital length of stay (HLOS). Statistical significance (P < 0.05) was determined using Student's t-test. Forty-two trauma patients (8.0 +/- 5.2 years) were evaluated. The early inflammatory response (CRP >or= 10 vs <10 mg/dl) was significantly correlated to the glycemic response (BG;121 +/- 24 vs 97.3 +/- 14.2 mg/dl, P < 0.05). Severely injured patients (ISS >or= 25 vs <25) were significantly more hyperglycemic (BG;156 +/- 56.9 vs 125 +/- 31.6 mg/dL, P = 0.003). Both increased inflammatory response (CRP;8.1 +/- 6.4 vs 2.5 +/- 3.5 mg/dL) and increased glycemic response (BG;111 +/- 15.9 vs 97.4 +/- 11.7 mg/dL) were independently and significantly associated with prolonged hospitalization (HLOS > 7 vs <or=7 days, P < 0.05). This study establishes a significant relationship between the early inflammatory and glycemic injury response and the association of that response with pediatric trauma patient morbidity and outcome measures.Journal of Pediatric Surgery 05/2009; 44(5):992-6. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2009.01.043 · 1.31 Impact Factor
- Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 05/2012; 36(6):630-1. DOI:10.1177/0148607112449357 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Preterm neonates exposed to painful procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit exhibit increased pain scores and alterations in oxygenation and heart rate. It is unclear whether these physiological responses increase the risk of oxidative stress. Using a prospective study design, we examined the relationship between a tissue-damaging procedure (TDP; tape removal during discontinuation of an indwelling central arterial or venous catheter) and oxidative stress in 80 preterm neonates. Oxidative stress was quantified by measuring uric acid (UA) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in plasma before and after neonates (n = 38) experienced a TDP compared to those not experiencing any TDP (control group, n = 42). Pain was measured before and during the TDP using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). We found that pain scores were higher in the TDP group compared to the control group (median scores, 11 and 5, respectively; P < .001). UA significantly decreased over time in control neonates but remained stable in TDP neonates (132.76 to 123.23 μM versus 140.50 to 138.9 μM; P = .002). MDA levels decreased over time in control neonates but increased in TDP neonates (2.07 to 1.81 μM versus 2.07 to 2.21 μM, P = .01). We found significant positive correlations between PIPP scores and MDA. Our data suggest a significant relationship between procedural pain and oxidative stress in preterm neonates. PERSPECTIVE: This article presents data describing a significant relationship between physiological markers of neonatal pain and oxidative stress. The method described in this paper can potentially be used to assess the direct cellular effects of procedural pain as well the effectiveness of interventions performed to decrease pain.The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society 06/2012; 13(6):590-597. DOI:10.1016/j.jpain.2012.03.010 · 4.22 Impact Factor