Article

The Assessment of Present-Moment Awareness and Acceptance The Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale

La Salle University, Philadelphia, PA 19141, USA.
Assessment (Impact Factor: 3.29). 07/2008; 15(2):204-23. DOI: 10.1177/1073191107311467
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this project was to develop a bidimensional measure of mindfulness to assess its two key components: present-moment awareness and acceptance. The development and psychometric validation of the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale is described, and data are reported from expert raters, two nonclinical samples (n = 204 and 559), and three clinical samples including mixed psychiatric outpatients (n = 52), eating disorder inpatients (n = 30), and student counseling center outpatients (n = 78). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support a two-factor solution, corresponding to the two constituent components of the construct. Good internal consistency was demonstrated, and relationships with other constructs were largely as expected. As predicted, significant differences were found between the nonclinical and clinical samples in levels of awareness and acceptance. The awareness and acceptance subscales were not correlated, suggesting that these two constructs can be examined independently. Potential theoretical and applied uses of the measure are discussed.

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    • "ACT-based process measures. The Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS; Cardaciotto et al., 2008) was used to assess Mary's mindfulness. It is a 20-item measure comprised of two subscales: the Awareness subscale, which measures one's continuous monitoring of internal and external experiences, and the Acceptance subscale, which measures one's nonjudgmental attitude toward one's experiences. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study marks the first application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) to the treatment of a university student with music performance anxiety (MPA). ACT is a newer, “thirdwave” therapy that differs from previous MPA treatments, because its goal is not to reduce symptoms of MPA. Rather, ACT aims to enhance psychological flexibility in the presence of unwanted symptoms through the promotion of six core processes collectively known as the ACT “hexaflex.” For this study, an undergraduate violinist with debilitating MPA received a 10-session ACT treatment using a single subject design. Treatment consisted of an orientation to ACT, identification of experientially avoidant behaviors, facilitation of hexaflex processes, in-session performances in which valued behaviors were practiced, meditations, homework, and regular completion of ACT-based and symptom-based measures. Clinically significant improvements were observed in her ability to accept and defuse from her anxious thoughts and feelings at post-treatment and at a 1-month follow-up. Her performance quality also improved at post-treatment. Although symptom reduction was not a goal, her MPA and overall distress were significantly reduced, and her perceived control over MPA significantly improved at post-treatment and follow-up. These results suggest ACT may be an effective treatment option for MPA and should be studied further.
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    • "ACT-based process measures. The Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS; Cardaciotto et al., 2008) was used to assess Mary's mindfulness. It is a 20-item measure comprised of two subscales: the Awareness subscale, which measures one's continuous monitoring of internal and external experiences, and the Acceptance subscale, which measures one's nonjudgmental attitude toward one's experiences. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study marks the first application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) to the treatment of a university student with music performance anxiety (MPA). ACT is a newer, " third-wave " therapy that differs from previous MPA treatments, because its goal is not to reduce symptoms of MPA. Rather, ACT aims to enhance psychological flexibility in the presence of unwanted symptoms through the promotion of six core processes collectively known as the ACT " hexaflex. " For this study, an undergraduate violinist with debilitating MPA received a 10-session ACT treatment using a single-subject design. Treatment consisted of an orientation to ACT, identification of experientially avoidant behaviors, facilitation of hexaflex processes, in-session performances in which valued behaviors were practiced, meditations, homework, and regular completion of ACT-based and symptom-based measures. Clinically significant improvements were observed in her ability to accept and defuse from her anxious thoughts and feelings at post-treatment and at a 1-month follow-up. Her performance quality also improved at post-treatment. Although symptom reduction was not a goal, her MPA and overall distress were significantly reduced, and her perceived control over MPA significantly improved at post-treatment and follow-up. These results suggest ACT may be an effective treatment option for MPA and should be studied further.
    Psychology of Music 07/2015; 1(18). DOI:10.1177/0305735615596236 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    • "ThePhiladelphiaMindfulnessScale(PHILMS) ThePHILMS(Cardaciottoetal.,2008 "
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