Lack of expression of androgen receptor may play a critical role in transformation from in situ to invasive basal subtype of high-grade ductal carcinoma of the breast.
ABSTRACT Androgen receptor has been implicated in the pathogenesis of breast carcinoma. In this study, we explored the potential role of androgen receptor in breast cancer by analyzing its expression using immunohistochemistry and its relationship with tumor progress (ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS] versus invasive ductal carcinoma [IDC]); nuclear grades (high grade [HG] versus non-high grade); expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER-2; and 3 molecular classifications: cytokeratin classification, triple (ER/PR/HER-2) negative classification, and ER/HER-2 classification in 184 breast carcinomas. We found that (1) lack of androgen receptor expression was associated with HG-IDC and with basal subtypes of HG-IDC, suggesting androgen receptor may play an important role in preventing the invasive transformation in this subgroup of breast carcinoma. (2) HG-IDC and HG-DCIS more frequently expressed androgen receptor than ER (55%-93% for androgen receptor and 18%-30% for ER) and were frequently androgen receptor+/ER- (63% for HG-DCIS and 39% for HG-IDC), which made androgen receptor a possible therapeutic target. (3) One third of HG-IDC was negative for androgen receptor, ER, PR, and HER-2, suggesting that further studies are needed to identify other key molecules for targeted therapy. We purpose that androgen receptor should be routinely measured for breast cancer.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The clinicopathologic, mammographic, and sonographic findings in patients with pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were assessed by estrogen receptor (ER) expression. After institutional review board approval, patients with pure DCIS evaluated from January 1996 to July 2009 with known ER status and available imaging were identified. Images were reviewed as per the ACR BI-RADS(®) lexicon (4th edition). Clinical, pathologic, and imaging characteristics were analyzed by ER status using t test, Chi square test, and Fisher's exact test. Of 1,219 patients with pure DCIS and known ER status identified, 1,187 with complete data were included. Mammography was performed in all 1,187 patients and sonography in 519 (44 %). There were 972 (82 %) patients with ER-positive and 215 (18 %) with ER-negative disease. ER-negative DCIS was more likely to be high grade (93 vs 44 %, p < 0.0001), associated with comedonecrosis (64 vs 29 %, p < 0.0001), and multifocal (23 vs 15 %, p = 0.009). On sonography, ER-negative DCIS was more likely to be visible (61 vs 46 %, p = 0.004), larger (mean size, 2.3 vs 1.6 cm, p = 0.006), and show posterior shadowing (53 vs 28 %, p = 0.006). Mastectomy was more frequently performed for ER-negative DCIS (47 vs 37 %, p = 0.008). Palpable DCIS was visible on sonography in 55 % of cases and mammography in 81 %. Compared with ER-positive palpable DCIS, ER-negative palpable DCIS was larger and more likely to be visible on sonography. Compared with ER-positive noncalcified DCIS, ER-negative noncalcified DCIS was less likely to be visible on mammography. ER-positive and ER-negative pure DCIS have different clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics. ER-negative DCIS is associated with worse prognostic factors than ER-positive DCIS. On sonography, ER-negative DCIS is more frequently visible than ER-positive DCIS, tends to be larger, and more frequently demonstrates posterior shadowing.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is evidence that androgens are breast protective and that testosterone therapy treats many symptoms of hormone deficiency in both pre and postmenopausal patients. However, unlike estrogen and progestins, there is a paucity of data regarding the incidence of breast cancer in women treated with testosterone therapy. This study was designed to investigate the incidence of breast cancer in women treated with subcutaneous testosterone therapy in the absence of systemic estrogen therapy. This is a 5-year interim analysis of a 10-year, prospective, observational, IRB approved study investigating the incidence of breast cancer in women presenting with symptoms of hormone deficiency treated with subcutaneous testosterone (T) implants or, T combined with the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole (A), i.e., T+A implants. Breast cancer incidence was compared with that of historical controls reported in the literature, age specific Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) incidence rates, and a representative, similar age group of our patients used as a 'control' group. The effect of adherence to T therapy was also evaluated. Since March 2008, 1268 pre and post menopausal women have been enrolled in the study and eligible for analysis. As of March 2013, there have been 8 cases of invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 5642 person-years of follow up for an incidence of 142 cases per 100000 person-years, substantially less than the age-specific SEER incidence rates (293/100000), placebo arm of Women's Health Initiative Study (300/100000), never users of hormone therapy from the Million Women Study (325/100000) and our control group (390/100000). Unlike adherence to estrogen therapy, adherence to T therapy further decreased the incidence of breast cancer (73/100000). T and/or T+A, delivered subcutaneously as a pellet implant, reduced the incidence of breast cancer in pre and postmenopausal women. Evidence supports that breast cancer is preventable by maintaining a T to estrogen ratio in favor of T and, in particular, by the use of continuous T or, when indicated, T+A. This hormone therapy should be further investigated for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.Maturitas 09/2013; · 2.84 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Growth factor signaling plays a key role in the growth and development of breast. Aberrant expression and activation of growth factors like insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) and their downstream sig-naling has been implicated in breast cancer. The deregulation of growth factor signaling is associated with increased proliferation and cell survival, decreased apoptosis, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. The aim of the present study is to survey the different signaling molecules involved in the IGF and EGF signaling pathways, and to find if there are any relationship between breast cancer and their levels and activation. Thirty-nine samples of breast cancer tissues (24 Grade II and 15 Grade III tumours) and sixteen normal breast tissue samples were collected. The expression of the re-ceptors and signaling molecules were investigated using Western blot. IGF-IRβ, AR, pAkt, IKK-α and p38 are upregu-lated in cancer tissues in a grade depended manner. Further, Akt and β-catenin were also upregulated in cancer samples. Correlation analysis of signaling molecules revealed a disruption in their expression in cancer tissues. The present study shows that various signaling molecules are upregulated or activated in cancer tissues involving IGF-IR and Akt path-way. The expression of signaling molecules in the cancer tissues were deregulated when compared to the control sam-ples. Thus, flawed expression and over activation of Akt pathway is seen in the breast cancer tissues.06/2013; 4.