Outcomes at 12 Months in a Population of Elderly Patients Discharged From a Rehabilitation Unit

Rehabilitation and Aged Care Unit, Ancelle della Carità Hospital, Cremona, Italy
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association (Impact Factor: 4.94). 01/2008; 9(1):55-64. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2007.09.009
Source: PubMed


This study investigates the cognitive, functional, and clinical variables associated with the risk of institutionalization, rehospitalization, and death at 12 months among a population of elderly discharged from a Rehabilitation and Aged Care Unit (RACU) within a 1-year period (May 1, 2004 to April 30, 2005). The RACU is a relatively new setting of care providing intensive rehabilitation and clinical support to elderly with highly heterogeneous reasons for admission.
There were 1303 patients (> or =65 years old) contacted 12 months after discharge from the RACU. We obtained information about institutionalization, rehospitalization, and death. Predictors were all the demographic and clinical variables potentially related to these outcomes. The relationship among predictors and outcomes was tested with multiple stepwise logistic regression models.
Among the 1072 patients alive at the 12-month follow-up, 90 (8.4%) were institutionalized (3.4% early at discharge and 4.9% within the next period). The logistic regression analysis showed that 2 ranges of age (78 to 83 years and 84 years or more), living alone, occurrence of delirium, cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Examination lower or equal to 20/30), and poor functional status at discharge (Barthel Index scores ranging from 69 to 85 and Barthel Index scores lower than 68/100) were independently and significantly associated with the risk of institutionalization during the 12 months following discharge from the RACU. Three hundred and twenty-three (30.1%) patients had been rehospitalized once and 86 (8.0%) patients twice at the 12-month follow-up. In the multivariate analysis, comorbidity (Charlson Index scores ranging from 2 to 3 and Charlson Index scores higher than 4) and delirium were significantly and independently associated with this outcome. One hundred and thirty-six (11.3%) patients had died by the 12-month follow-up. The stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that age greater than 83 years, poor functional status (Barthel Index lower than 60/100 at discharge), high comorbidity (Charlson Index scores ranging from 3 to 4 and Charlson Index scores higher than 4, respectively), and albumin serum levels ranging from 3.2 to 2.9 mg/dL and lower than 2.9 mg/dL independently and significantly predicted the 12-month risk of death. Absence of depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale <2/15) had instead a protective effect.
Variables related to the sociodemographic, cognitive, functional, and health status predicted, with different degree of association, the 12-month risk of institutionalization, rehospitalization, and death among a population of elderly patients discharged from a RACU. Accordingly, various clinical and organizational approaches may be planned for prevention.

2 Reads
  • Source
    • "Patients were consecutively admitted to a 27-bed In-hospital rehabilitation ward within the Department of Rehabilitation of the Ancelle Hospital (Cremona, Italy) between September 2013 and May 2014. This setting has been previously described [6] [37]. Patients were excluded if the authorized surrogate refused informed consent, if patients had delirium without dementia , or if patients could not self-report. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Delirium superimposed on dementia is common and potentially distressing for patients, caregivers, and health care staff. We quantitatively and qualitatively assessed the experience of informal caregiver and staff (staff nurses, nurse aides, physical therapists) caring for patients with delirium superimposed on dementia. Caregivers' and staff experience was evaluated three days after delirium superimposed on dementia resolution (T0) with a standardized questionnaire (quantitative interview) and open-ended questions (qualitative interview); caregivers were also evaluated at 1-month follow-up (T1). A total of 74 subjects were included; 33 caregivers and 41 health care staff (8 staff nurses, 20 physical therapists, 13 staff nurse aides/health care assistants). Overall, at both T0 and T1, the distress level was moderate among caregivers and mild among health care staff. Caregivers reported, at both T0 and T1, higher distress related to deficits of sustained attention and orientation, hypokinesia/psychomotor retardation, incoherence and delusions. The distress of health care staff related to each specific item of the Delirium-O-Meter was relatively low except for the physical therapists who reported higher level of distress on deficits of sustained/shifting attention and orientation, apathy, hypokinesia/psychomotor retardation, incoherence, delusion, hallucinations, and anxiety/fear. The qualitative evaluation identified important categories of caregivers' and staff feelings related to the delirium experience. This study provides information on the implication of the experience of delirium on caregivers and staff. The distress related to delirium superimposed on dementia underlines the importance of providing continuous training, support and experience for both the caregivers and health care staff to improve the care of patients with delirium superimposed on dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of psychosomatic research 08/2015; 79(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.06.012 · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The most frequent reasons for admission are postsurgical interventions (hip fracture surgical repair; hip or knee arthroplasty; abdominal surgery ), stroke, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, Parkinson diseases, or gait and balance disorders owing to a single or mixed etiology, including hypokinetic syndrome. This setting has been fully described previously [6] [14]. Briefly, the rehabilitation ward is staffed by full-time geriatricians, physiatrists, nurses, nurse's aides, physical, speech and occupational therapists. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Delirium superimposed on dementia is common and is associated with adverse outcomes. Yet little is known about the patients' personal delirium experiences. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the delirium superimposed on dementia experience among older patients. We conducted a prospective cohort study among patients with delirium superimposed on dementia who were admitted to a rehabilitation ward. Delirium was diagnosed using DSM-IV-TR criteria. Delirium severity and symptoms were evaluated with the Delirium-O-Meter (D-O-M). The experience of delirium was assessed after delirium resolution (T0) and one month later (T1) with a standardized questionnaire and a qualitative interview. Level of distress was measured with the Delirium Experience Questionnaire. Of the 30 patients included in the study, 50% had mild dementia; 33% and 17% had moderate and severe dementia. Half of the patients had evidence of the full range of D-O-M delirium symptoms. We evaluated 30 patients at T0 and 20 at T1. At T0, half of the patients remembered being confused as part of the delirium episode, and reported an overall moderate level of related distress. Patients reported high distress related to memories of anxiety/fear, delusions, restlessness, hypokinesia, and impaired orientation. Qualitative interviews revealed six main aspects of patient delirium experiences: Emotions; Cognitive Impairment; Psychosis; Memories; Awareness of Change; and Physical Symptoms. The study provides novel information on the delirium experience in patients with dementia. These findings are the key for health care providers to improve the everyday care of this important group of frail older patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of psychosomatic research 08/2015; 79(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.07.010 · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The associated pathologies observed in patients hospitalized in more intensive rehabilitation facilities (“riabilitazione specialistica”) may cover several areas with different degrees of severity.9 In the field of rehabilitation, the presence of five or more comorbidities has been shown to contribute to lower functional recovery,10 to less effective rehabilitation,11 to longer LOSs,12 to a higher level of subsequent hospitalization,13 and to higher hospital costs.14 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with comorbidities are becoming more and more common in Italian rehabilitative wards. These comorbidities are considered a major problem for inpatient rehabilitation, due to the fact that they cause longer lengths of stay, higher costs, and lower functional results. To investigate the possible relationships between comorbidity, functional impairment, age, and type of discharge in patients hospitalized in postacute rehabilitation facilities, we planned an observational study. A total of 178 consecutive inpatients (average age: 78 years [range: 39-99]) from postacute rehabilitation facilities were recruited. Primary diagnosis, comorbidity rating (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale - Geriatric version, CIRS-G) and functional impairment score (Functional Independence Measure, FIM™) were evaluated at admission. The FIM™ rating was also assessed at hospital discharge. A total of 178 of the 199 enrolled patients completed the rehabilitation treatment (89.4%). The average length of stay was 46 ± 24 days. CIRS-G showed an average comorbidity score for each patient of 4.45 ± 1.69. The average FIM™ rating was 79 ± 24.88 at admission, and 91.9 ± 25.7 at discharge. Diagnosis at admission (grouped according to the International Classification of Diseases 9-CM) seemed to correlate with functional results, since lower rehabilitative efficiency was obtained for patients who had a history of stroke. The number and type of comorbidities (CIRS-G) in rehabilitation inpatients do not seem to affect functional outcomes of treatment. The determining factor for a lower level of functional recovery seems to be the diagnosis at admission.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 02/2013; 9:253-7. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S39922 · 1.74 Impact Factor
Show more