Right-to-left shunt through a patent foramen ovale left open in the management of acute right heart failure after heart transplantation.
ABSTRACT Severe pulmonary hypertension is a risk factor for mortality in heart transplantation due to elevated post-operative right heart failure. Various treatment modalities have been used in the management of pulmonary hypertension in the peri-operative period. We report a case of successful management of acute right heart failure after orthotopic heart transplantation by decompression of the right ventricle through the patent foramen ovale of the donor heart and inhalation of iloprost.
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ABSTRACT: Acute pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which may complicate the course of many complex disorders, is always underdiagnosed and its treatment frequently begins only after serious complications have developed. Acute PAH is distinctive because they differ in their clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, and response to treatment from chronic PAH. The acute PAH may take either the form of acute onset of chronic PAH or acute PAH or surgery-related PAH. Significant pathophysiologic differences existed between acute and chronic PAH. Therapy of acute PAH should generally be aimed at acutely relieving right ventricular (RV) pressure overload and preventing RV dysfunction. There are three classes of drugs targeting the correction of abnormalities in endothelial dysfunction, which have been approved recently for the treatment of PAH: (1) prostanoids; (2) endothelin receptor antagonists; and (3) phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. The efficacy and safety of these compounds have been confirmed in uncontrolled studies in patients with PAH. Intravenous epoprostenol is suggested to serve as the first-line treatment for the most severe patients. In the other situations, the first-line therapy may include bosentan, sildenafil, or a prostacyclin analogue. Recent advances in the management of PAH have markedly improved prognosis.Cardiovascular Therapeutics 06/2011; 29(3):153-75. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inhaled iloprost is attracting growing interest as a potential alternative and/or adjuvant to inhaled nitric oxide in the management of pediatric pulmonary hypertension in the acute and intensive care settings. However, there are currently no formal evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of inhaled iloprost in children with pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the literature concerning the use of inhaled iloprost in children with pulmonary hypertension in the acute setting. Studies were identified from PubMed and Embase. Internal literature databases and recent congress abstracts (2009 onward) were also searched for relevant publications. Studies were included if they examined the use of inhaled iloprost in children with pulmonary hypertension in an acute or intensive care setting. Twenty-eight studies were included in the review. The majority were case studies or case series (n = 17), and in total, the 28 studies represented the treatment of 195 children with iloprost. Iloprost was most frequently studied in children undergoing cardiac surgery (as a bridge to surgery and postoperatively), in children undergoing acute pulmonary vasoreactivity testing, and in neonates with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. The results of the included studies suggested that inhaled iloprost may have a diverse role in the acute treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension and that its acute effects are similar to those of inhaled nitric oxide. However, the iloprost dose was not consistently reported and varied greatly between studies, and several different administration devices were used. Inhaled iloprost may be useful in the acute treatment of children and neonates with pulmonary hypertension, but clinical data are scarce, and the appropriate dosing of iloprost in different scenarios is uncertain. Well-designed prospective clinical trials are needed.Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 09/2011; 13(4):472-80. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The successful delivery of optimal peri-operative care to pediatric heart transplant recipients is a vital determinant of their overall outcomes. The practitioner caring for these patients must be familiar with and treat multiple simultaneous issues in a patient who may have been critically ill preoperatively. In addition to the complexities involved in treating any child following cardiac surgery, caretakers of newly transplanted patients encounter multiple transplant-specific issues. This chapter details peri-operative management strategies, frequently encountered early morbidities, initiation of immunosuppression including induction, and short-term outcomes.Current Cardiology Reviews 05/2011; 7(2):110-22.