Article

Influence of aging, tidal volume, and respiratory rate on Doppler echocardiographic indices of diastolic function in normal male subjects: a quantitative evaluation.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
Echocardiography (Impact Factor: 1.26). 02/2008; 25(1):40-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-8175.2007.00562.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although the influence of respiration on ventricular filling, as evaluated by Doppler technique, and the evaluation of diastolic velocities of mitral valve annulus (MVA), as measured by Doppler tissue imaging (DTI), can provide valuable information for the study of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, the concomitant effects of aging, tidal volume (TV), and respiratory rate (RR) on these velocities have not been quantitatively investigated.
We evaluated 12 normal male volunteers (Group I) aged 20-26 years (mean: 22.8) and 8 normal subjects aged 41 to 54 years old (mean: 45.9) (Group II). Using DTI we measured peak early (E(a)) and late (A(a)) velocities of longitudinal axis expansion at lateral and medial MVA. Doppler mitral and tricuspid flow velocities were measured: peak early (E) and late (A) inflow velocity, early (E(i)) and late (A(i)) flow integral, and deceleration time of peak early mitral flow velocity (DT). Respiratory cycles were simultaneously recorded at RR of 9, 12, 15, and 18 cycles/min and TV of 600 and 900 mL during respiration (RESP).
(1) E, A, and A(i) in MV had negligible change during respiration, but E(i) was significantly reduced during inspiration; (2) DT reduced slightly with inspiration, but the change was significant only with TV of 900 mL; (3) an important increase of E in right ventricular flow was observed during inspiration; (4) variations of RR and TV did not significantly influence right and left ventricular inflow in normal subjects, in the conditions of this investigation; (5) a significant increase of E(a) at medial MVA was documented during inspiration only in young subjects; (6) a significant decrease of A(a) at medial MVA was observed during inspiration in both groups of volunteers; (7) RR and TV did not influence MVA velocities in young and adult subjects; (8) a consistent reduction in E(a) and a significant increase in A(a) were observed with increasing age; (9) these changes were more conspicuous and consistent than those documented in ventricular filling when young and middle-age men are compared, suggesting that the DTI is more sensitive to detect changes in diastolic function; and (10) in addition, these data suggest that, for evaluation of diastolic function, in clinical context, it is not necessary to control rigorously RR or TV.

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