Depressive symptomatology in young adults with a history of MDMA use: a longitudinal analysis
ABSTRACT Research suggests that methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)/;ecstasy' can cause serotonin depletion as well as serotonergic neurodegradation that may result in depression. This longitudinal study used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) to assess depressive symptomatology every six months over a two-year period among a community sample of young adult MDMA/;ecstasy' users (n = 402). Multilevel growth modeling was used to analyze changes in BDI scores. Between baseline and 24 months, the mean BDI score declined from 9.8 to 7.7. Scores varied significantly across individuals at baseline and declined at a rate of 0.36 points every six months. Persons with higher baseline scores were more likely to have their scores decrease over time. Several factors were significantly associated with score levels, independent of time: gender - men's scores were lower than women's; ethnicity - whites' scores were lower than those of non-whites; education - persons with at least some university education had scores that were lower than those without any college experience; benzodiazepines - current users' scores were higher than non-users'; opioids - current users' scores were higher than non-users'; and cumulative ecstasy use - people who had used MDMA more than 50 times had scores that were higher than persons who had used the drug less often. The results reported here show low levels of depressive symptoms among a sample that, after 24 months, consisted of both current and former MDMA users. The low and declining mean scores suggest that for most people MDMA/;ecstasy' use does not result in long-term depressive symptomatology.
- SourceAvailable from: Michael Bubser
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- "There has been the suggestion that chronic use of MDMA, which targets the fine 5-HT axons of the cortex, may lead to depression. However, there is usually concurrent use of other drugs with recreational use of MDMA, and recent data have suggested that if there is an increase in depression in persons who use MDMA it is probably associated with concurrent use of other drugs rather than MDMA itself (Guillot & Greenway, 2006; Medina & Shear, 2007; Falck et al., 2008). These considerations and our observations that the beaded cortical 5-HT axons are preferentially targeted in MPTP-induced parkinsonism raise the possibility that the loss of the beaded cortical 5-HT innervation is associated with a predisposition to the development of depression in PD. "
ABSTRACT: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is marked by prominent motor symptoms that reflect striatal dopamine insufficiency. However, non-motor symptoms, including depression, are common in PD. It has been suggested that these changes reflect pathological involvement of non-dopaminergic systems. We examined regional changes in serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) systems in mice treated with two different 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment paradigms, at survival times of 3 or 16 weeks after the last MPTP injection. MPTP caused a decrease in striatal dopamine concentration, the magnitude of which depended on the treatment regimen and survival interval after MPTP treatment. There was significant involvement of other subcortical areas receiving a dopamine innervation, but no consistent changes in 5-HT or NE levels in subcortical sites. In contrast, we observed an enduring decrease in 5-HT and NE concentrations in both the somatosensory cortex and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Immunohistochemical studies also revealed a decrease in the density of PFC NE and 5-HT axons. The decrease in the cortical serotonergic innervation preferentially involved the thick beaded but not smooth fine 5-HT axons. Similar changes in the 5-HT innervation of post-mortem samples of the PFC from idiopathic PD cases were seen. Our findings point to a major loss of the 5-HT and NE innervations of the cortex in MPTP-induced parkinsonism, and suggest that loss of the beaded cortical 5-HT innervation is associated with a predisposition to the development of depression in PD.European Journal of Neuroscience 08/2009; 30(2):207-16. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.06806.x · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance world-wide. Marijuana use is especially prevalent among college and university students and has been associated with both positive and negative well-being. The present study investigated the relationships between the frequency of marijuana use, negative consequences resulting from drug use, well-being, and personality. Undergraduates (N = 570) completed online measures of marijuana use, negative consequences (using a modified form of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index), well-being (happiness, life satisfaction, depression, and positive and negative affect), and personality (using the NEO-PI-R). Rates of marijuana use were higher than those reported in many previous studies. Males reported using marijuana more frequently and using greater amounts than females. Frequency of marijuana use was not associated with well-being. However, negative consequences resulting from drug use were positively correlated with negative well-being, and negatively correlated with positive well-being. People low in Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were more likely to use marijuana and experience negative consequences. After controlling for personality, negative consequences did not explain any further variance in positive well-being, but explained a small amount of variance in negative well-being. After marijuana, the most commonly used drugs were hallucinogens, cocaine, ecstasy, MDMA, ketamine, Oxycontin, and prescription stimulants. The relationships between these drugs and well-being varied per individual drug. However, stimulants were consistently related to both well-being and negative consequences. Overall, marijuana use was the greatest contributor to negative consequences.Journal of Happiness Studies 04/2014; 15(2). DOI:10.1007/s10902-013-9423-1 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined the relationship between depression and HIV-related risk behavior practices in a sample of 250 at risk, predominantly African American women living in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. Interviews were conducted between August 1997 and August 2000. Street outreach efforts were used to identify potential study participants, with further expansion of the sample via targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping procedures. Our conceptual model hypothesized a relationship between depression and HIV risk in which depression and condom-related attitudes were construed as intervening (or mediating) variables. A multivariate analysis was used to determine the relationship between depression and women's risk behaviors. The results showed that depression was a key-mediating variable, having its primary influence on women's risky practices through its impact upon their attitudes toward using condoms. Factors associated with depression, included religiosity, closeness of family relationships, financial problems, childhood maltreatment experiences, and drug-related problems. The implications of these findings for prevention and intervention efforts are: (1) heightening faith community involvement and religious participation to decrease depression; (2) working with women whose familial bonds are in need of strengthening to combat depression; (3) providing mental health and counseling services to women who were emotionally and/or sexually abused during their formative years seems to help these women to recover from unresolved issues that may be fueling depression; (4) assisting at risk women who need training in money management issues to minimize their risk for depression; and (5) helping women drug abusers to receive treatment for their drug problems to combat their depression and lower their HIV risk.Women & Health 02/2008; 48(2):167-88. DOI:10.1080/03630240802313605 · 1.05 Impact Factor