Systemic Erdheim-Chester disease.
ABSTRACT Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare xanthomatosis that may present with characteristic radiologic and histologic features. There have been conflicting reports regarding the nature of this process, including whether it represents a reactive or neoplastic lesion. We present the clinical histories, pathologic findings, and an analysis of clonality using the HUMARA assay in two patients diagnosed with Erdheim-Chester disease. One case has previously been documented in the literature. Histologically, both cases demonstrated sheets of foamy xanthomatous histiocytes with widespread infiltration of the viscera. These regions were punctuated by variable amounts of inflammation, including lymphocytes, plasma cells, and occasional Touton-type giant cells. The histiocytes were immunoreactive for CD68 and CD163; they did not stain with S100 or CD1a. One case was found to be monoclonal; however, the second case had extensive DNA degradation; thus, clonality could not be assessed. In addition to contributing an additional report of this rare disease to the literature, we demonstrate the histiocytes to express CD163, thereby further supporting a monocyte/macrophage basis. Moreover, in confirming clonality, our observations lend additional evidence to the view that Erdheim-Chester disease represents a neoplastic process.
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ABSTRACT: Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a life-threatening multi-systemic non-Langerhans histiocytosis with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of death. ECD affects the kidneys in up to 30% of cases, with fibrotic tissue deposition in the perirenal fat and renal hilum. Diagnosis is usually based on histological analysis of the pathologic tissue, which typically shows xanthogranulomatous infiltrates of foamy CD68+/CD1a- histiocytes surrounded by fibrosis. A consistent percentage of patients affected by ECD develop renal failure and hypertension as a consequence of renal artery stenosis and hydronephrosis. These conditions have been generally treated with the placement of stents and nephrostomies that frequently led to disappointing outcomes. Before the introduction of interferon-alpha (IFNα) treatment, the mortality rate was as high as 57% in the long term. Recent studies have granted new insights into the pathogenesis of ECD, which seems to bear a dual component of clonal and inflammatory disease. These advances led to use specific therapies targeting either the oncogenes (BRAFV600E) or the effectors of the immune response implicated in ECD (IL-1, TNFα). Drugs such as anakinra (recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist), infliximab (monoclonal antibody against TNFα) and vemurafenib (inhibitor of mutant BRAF) showed promising results in small single-centre series. Although larger trials will be needed to address the impact of these drugs on ECD prognosis and to select the most effective treatment, targeted therapies hold the premises to drastically change the outcome of this condition.07/2014; 7(4):1-5. DOI:10.1093/ckj/sfu068
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ABSTRACT: We report a unique case of Rosai-Dorfman disease (sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy) involving the uterus. A 63-yr-old female with a history of parathyroid adenoma and cavernous sinus meningioma underwent total abdominal hysterectomy for a possible uterine malignancy. The histologic findings consisted of a nodular, mass-like infiltration of the myometrium by clusters, cords, and sheets of CD163-positve, S100-positive histiocytes with lymphocytophagocytosis (emperipolesis). The cells were negative for CD1a and langerin. Occasional plasma cells and erythrocytes were also present. Most of the histiocytes had pale, vacuolated, or foamy cytoplasm. In all cases, the nuclei were small and eccentric. No mitotic figures were identified. Two prior cases of Rosai-Dorfman disease have been reported in the female genital tract: 1 in the cervix and 1 in the bilateral ovaries. Rosai-Dorfman disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of histiocyte-rich lesions in the female genital tract. The diagnosis should be strongly considered in the presence of the characteristic histology with lymphocytophagocytosis (emperipolesis). A limited immunohistochemical panel consisting of CD163, S100, and CD1a and/or langerin will confirm the diagnosis in most cases.International Journal of Gynecological Pathology 06/2014; 33(4). DOI:10.1097/PGP.0b013e3182a03d23 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare, systemic, non-familial histiocytic disorder, first described by Jakob Erdheim and William Chester in 1930. Most patients have multiple sites of involvement at presentation. The most common site of involvement is the long bones of the axial skeleton, which is seen almost universally, followed by the nervous system, heart, lungs, orbit and retroperitoneum, which are seen in up to 50% of cases. Cutaneous involvement is rarely a presenting symptom of ECD, with two reported cases in the English literature. The diagnosis of ECD is rarely made by skin biopsy because of the relative rarity of cutaneous involvement as a presenting feature, and also perhaps because of the difficulty in distinguishing the histopathological appearance from potential mimics. The importance of distinguishing ECD from other cutaneous disorders with similar pathology lies in the implications for both treatment and prognosis. ECD is an aggressive, often fatal disorder, with death from disease occurring in greater than 50% of patients.Journal of Cutaneous Pathology 03/2011; 38(3):280-5. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0560.2010.01650.x · 1.56 Impact Factor