Genetic and genomic analysis modeling of germline c-MYC overexpression and cancer susceptibility.

Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Unit, and Translational Research Laboratory, Catalan Institute of Oncology, IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain.
BMC Genomics (Impact Factor: 4.4). 02/2008; 9:12. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-12
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Germline genetic variation is associated with the differential expression of many human genes. The phenotypic effects of this type of variation may be important when considering susceptibility to common genetic diseases. Three regions at 8q24 have recently been identified to independently confer risk of prostate cancer. Variation at 8q24 has also recently been associated with risk of breast and colorectal cancer. However, none of the risk variants map at or relatively close to known genes, with c-MYC mapping a few hundred kilobases distally.
This study identifies cis-regulators of germline c-MYC expression in immortalized lymphocytes of HapMap individuals. Quantitative analysis of c-MYC expression in normal prostate tissues suggests an association between overexpression and variants in Region 1 of prostate cancer risk. Somatic c-MYC overexpression correlates with prostate cancer progression and more aggressive tumor forms, which was also a pathological variable associated with Region 1. Expression profiling analysis and modeling of transcriptional regulatory networks predicts a functional association between MYC and the prostate tumor suppressor KLF6. Analysis of MYC/Myc-driven cell transformation and tumorigenesis substantiates a model in which MYC overexpression promotes transformation by down-regulating KLF6. In this model, a feedback loop through E-cadherin down-regulation causes further transactivation of c-MYC.
This study proposes that variation at putative 8q24 cis-regulator(s) of transcription can significantly alter germline c-MYC expression levels and, thus, contribute to prostate cancer susceptibility by down-regulating the prostate tumor suppressor KLF6 gene.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Recently, several genome-wide association studies have demonstrated a cumulative association of 5 polymorphic variants in chromosomes 8q24 and 17q with prostate cancer (CaP) risk in Caucasians, particularly those harboring aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of these variants on CaP susceptibility in Singaporean Asian men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a case-control study in 289 Chinese CaP patients and 412 healthy subjects (144 Chinese, 134 Malays, and 134 Indians), and examined the association of the 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with CaP. RESULTS: In the healthy subjects, rs16901979 A-allele frequency was highest amongst Chinese (0.32) compared with Malays (0.13; P < 0.0001) or Indians (0.09; P < 0.0001); rs6983267 G-allele was highest in Indians (0.51) compared with Chinese (0.42; P = 0.041) or Malays (0.43; P = 0.077); whereas rs1859962 G-allele frequency was highest amongst Indians (0.56) compared with Chinese (0.40; P = 0.0002) or Malays (0.38; P < 0.0001). Individuals with the rs4430796 TT genotype were at increased CaP risk in the Chinese via a recessive model (odds ratios (OR) = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.04-2.33). Significant associations were observed for rs4430796 TT with Gleason scores of ≥7 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.14-2.73) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of ≥10 ng/ml at diagnosis (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.01-2.63), as well as for rs6983267 GG with stage 3-4 CaPs (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.01-3.61). A cumulative gene interaction influence on disease risk, which approximately doubled for individuals with at least 2 susceptibility genotypes, was also identified (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.10-4.32). CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory analysis suggests that the 5 genetic variants previously described may contribute to prostate cancer risk in Singaporean men.
    Urologic Oncology 05/2012; · 3.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Along hundreds of thousands of years, genetic variation has been the keystone for human evolution and adaptation to the surrounding environment. Although this fact has supposed a great progress for the species, mutations in our DNA sequence may also lead to an increased risk of developing some diseases with an underlying genetic basis, such as cancer. Among different genetic epidemiology branches, population-based association studies are one of the tools that can help us decipher which of these mutations are involved in the appearance or progression of the disease. This chapter aims to be a didactic but thorough review for those who are interested in genetic association studies and its analytical methodology. It will mainly focus on SNP-array analysis techniques, covering issues such as quality control, assessment of association with disease, gene–gene and gene–environment interactions, haplotype analysis, and genome-wide association studies. In the last part, some of the existing bioinformatics tools that perform the exposed analyses will be reviewed.
    09/2009: pages 149-191;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: c-Myc oncoprotein is overexpressed in most human cancers and regulates different genes and pathways in different cell types. E-cadherin expression is repressed by MYC through a post-transcriptional mechanism, but the exact mechanism remains elusive. Since E-cadherin is a direct target of miR-9 and miR-9 can be activated by MYC and MYCN, this suggests that c-Myc negatively modulates E-cadherin through a microRNA pathway. We have established a c-Myc-inducible expression system in which the protein level and transcriptional activity of c-Myc is significantly upregulated upon doxycycline induction. Overexpressed c-Myc led to an EMT-like conversion in the T-REx-293 cells and resulted in a significant decrease in E-cadherin and an increase in Vimentin. Stem-loop RT-PCR showed elevated expression of miR-9 when c-Myc was induced to be overexpressed. Regarding the relationship of c-Myc, miR-9 and E-cadherin, the expression of miR-9 was curtailed by using antagomir-9 in induced overexpressing c-Myc. Restoration of E-cadherin expression became much stronger in the presence of c-Myc. Thus c-Myc represses E-cadherin at the post-transcriptional level through miR-9.
    Cell Biology International 01/2013; · 1.64 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 1, 2014