Single-stage dorsal inlay split-skin graft for salvage anterior urethral reconstruction.
ABSTRACT To report our initial experience and extended follow-up of single-stage dorsal inlay skin-graft urethroplasty for salvaging recurrent anterior urethral stricture (AUS), as urethral reconstruction remains a challenge, particularly in patients with recurrent AUS after previous surgery, and a paucity of local skin frequently requires free graft reconstruction techniques.
In all, 27 patients (mean age 48.12 years, range 17-79) with recurrent AUS had a dorsal inlay urethroplasty using extragenital split-thickness skin grafts. An electrical dermatome was used for graft harvesting. All patients had contraindications for buccal mucosal grafting (e.g. radiotherapy, leukoplakia). The assessment before repair comprised a clinical investigation, urine analysis, uroflowmetry, retrograde and voiding cystogram, urethral ultrasonography and endoscopy. The follow-up was based on an assessment of flow rate and postvoid residual volume. Success was defined by the absence of symptoms and stable maximum flow rate, while any further instrumentation was considered a failure.
The mean (range) stricture length was 8.35 (3-14) cm. The overall complication rate was 7%, with no complications during surgery. During the mean (range) follow-up of 32.43 (5-46) months, 25 (93%) of the patients were successfully cured in one operation. Two patients required further treatment for recurrence and fistula. No long-term complications were noted at the graft donor sites. There was no case of intraurethral hair growth during the extended follow-up.
If there are contraindications for buccal mucosal grafting, a split-thickness skin can be used for dorsal inlay urethroplasty in recurrent AUS. A well-vascularized recipient bed on the corpora cavernosa is required for reliable graft take. Intra-urethral hair growth is avoided by using split-skin grafts. Although the complication rates are equivalent to those of buccal mucosa, we await the longer follow-up to assess the ultimate value of this alternative single-stage technique.
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ABSTRACT: A one-stage onlay urethroplasty, using a buccal mucosa graft, is presented for patients with bulbous strictures in whom the urethral mucosa is seriously involved in the disease. Of 40 patients who underwent a dorsal buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty for bulbous urethral strictures, 5 required complete removal of the urethral mucosa and its replacement by a buccal mucosa graft. All these patients had undergone previous urethrotomy with a false passage inside the bulbous urethra and had a suprapubic tube in place. The goal of removal and replacement of the urethral mucosa in each case was to create a new, wide urethral mucosal bed to promote successful one-stage reconstruction. All patients voided spontaneously without problems after removal of the catheter. After 4 months, the mean peak flow was 21 mL/s. After 6 months, urethroscopy did not show any stricture recurrence. None of the patients required instrumentation or dilation. In patients with bulbous urethral strictures and false passage into the mucosa and spongiosum tissues, the complete removal and replacement of the urethral mucosa using a circumferential buccal mucosa graft promotes successful one-stage urethral reconstruction.Urology 03/2003; 61(2):452-5. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We assess the medium and long-term morbidity of buccal mucosal graft (BMG) harvest for urethroplasty, and evaluate the effect of nonclosure of the graft harvest site on postoperative pain. A questionnaire was mailed to 110 men who underwent BMG urethroplasty between January 1, 1997 and August 31, 2002. Demographic data and side effects of BMG harvest, including oral pain, sensation and intake, were assessed postoperatively. A prospective study was then performed to compare 20 unselected men whose BMG donor site was closed with a group of 20 men in whom it was left open using a 5-point analog pain score that was completed twice daily for the first 5 postoperative days. A total of 49 men with a median age of 49 years (range 23 to 73) returned questionnaires relating to 57 BMG harvests. Of the graft harvests 47 (83%) were associated with postoperative pain, which was worse than expected in 24 (51%). Of the 57 patients 51 (90%) resumed oral liquid intake within 24 hours and 44 (77%) resumed normal diet within 1 week. Postoperative side effects included perioral numbness in 39 (68%) patients with 15 (26%) having residual numbness after 6 months, initial difficulty with mouth opening in 38 (67%) with 5 (9%) having persistent problems, changes in salivation in 6 (11%) and mucous retention cyst that required excision in 1 (2%). The men in the prospective donor site study had a median age of 51 years (range 24 to 70). Mean pain score for patients with donor site closure was 3.68 and was significantly higher than that for patients without donor site closure (2.26, p < 0.01). Buccal mucosal graft harvest is not a pain-free procedure. Closure of the harvest donor site appears to worsen this pain and it may be best to leave harvest sites open. The main long-term complications are perioral numbness, persistent difficulty with mouth opening and change in salivary function.The Journal of Urology 09/2004; 172(2):580-3. · 3.70 Impact Factor
Article: Urethral reconstruction.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To present an up-to-date review on the main surgical techniques used to treat urethral strictures. Anterior urethroplasty can be treated in outpatient surgical settings, thus decreasing the impact of urethroplasty. To improve outcome in adult patients, reconstructive surgeons have learned to apply the principles of hypospadias surgery, such as delicate tissue handling, avoidance of overlapping suture lines, tissue and the development of preputial skin flaps, to adult urethral surgery. Penile skin has been used as a free graft or harvested as a flap for some time, thanks to its location, hairless skin and durability. Since the early 1990s the use of buccal mucosa was introduced in genital reconstructive surgery and has become popular for complex urethral reconstructions. The use of fibrin glue was recently suggested to fix the buccal mucosal graft in a better way and to cover the anastomosis between the graft and urethral plate. Urethral reconstructive surgery is changing rapidly and this change has posed problems for surgeons who see the principles that previously defined their profession becoming obsolete or unworkable. New techniques, new tools, such as fibrin glue, and new engineered material are a part of our future.Current Opinion in Urology 12/2006; 16(6):391-5. · 2.20 Impact Factor