The Reg family member INGAP is a marker of endocrine patterning in the embryonic pancreas.
ABSTRACT Adult islet neogenesis is believed to recapitulate elements of pancreatic endocrine development. Identifying factors that regulate islet neogenesis-associated protein (INGAP) gene activity could provide links to pancreas development.
Predicted transcriptional regulators of INGAP were screened in an INGAP-promoter-reporter assay. Based upon their temporal expression, the occurrence of INGAP-positive cells during pancreas embryonic development were studied.
Pancreatic transcription factors, PDX-1, Ngn3, NeuroD, and Isl-1, activated the INGAP promoter, but PAX4, PAX6, and Nkx2.2 did not. The INGAP-positive cells were present in the developing pancreatic bud of the mouse embryo. Emerging clusters of unorganized endocrine cells were INGAP positive. These cells coexpressed insulin or somatostatin, but glucagon-expressing cells remained distinct. The INGAP-positive cells were also detected in the maturing neonatal endocrine cells organized into islets. In direct contrast to the embryo, glucagon localized with most INGAP-positive cells in the postnatal endocrine cells. The INGAP-positive cells juxtaposed pancreatic duct cells. A subset of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive/INGAP-positive cells was detected in the neonatal pancreas.
These data implicate INGAP and/or Reg family proteins in endocrine cell patterning during embryonic development and suggest that INGAP immunoreactivity is a key marker associated with early endocrine cells.
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ABSTRACT: Protein lysine deacetylases (KDACs), including the classic Zn(2+) -dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) )-requiring sirtuins, are enzymes that play critical roles in numerous biological processes, particularly the epigenetic regulation of global gene expression programs in response to internal and external cues. Dysregulation of KDACs is characteristic of several human diseases, including chronic metabolic, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. This has led to the development of KDAC modulators, two of which (HDAC inhibitors vorinostat and romidepsin) have been approved for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. By their nature, existing KDAC modulators are relatively nonspecific, leading to pan-KDAC changes and undesired side effects. Given that KDACs are regulated at many levels, including transcriptional, post-translational, subcellular localization, and through their complexation with other proteins, it should be possible to affect specific KDAC activity through manipulation of endogenous signaling pathways. In this Minireview, we discuss our present knowledge of the cellular controls of KDAC activity and examples of their pharmacologic regulation.ChemMedChem 01/2014; DOI:10.1002/cmdc.201300444 · 3.05 Impact Factor