Article

Efficacy and safety of the Gardos channel blocker, senicapoc (ICA-17043), in patients with sickle cell anemia.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB no. 7305, 3009 Old Clinic Bldg, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7305, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 04/2008; 111(8):3991-7. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2007-08-110098
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Senicapoc, a novel Gardos channel inhibitor, limits solute and water loss, thereby preserving sickle red blood cell (RBC) hydration. Because hemoglobin S polymerization is profoundly influenced by intracellular hemoglobin concentration, senicapoc could improve sickle RBC survival. In a 12-week, multicenter, phase 2, randomized, double-blind, dose-finding study, we evaluated senicapoc's safety and its effect on hemoglobin level and markers of RBC hemolysis in sickle cell anemia patients. The patients were randomized into 3 treatment arms: placebo; low-dose (6 mg/day) senicapoc; and high-dose (10 mg/day) senicapoc. For the primary efficacy end point (change in hemoglobin level from baseline), the mean response to high-dose senicapoc treatment exceeded placebo (6.8 g/L [0.68 g/dL] vs 0.1 g/L [0.01 g/dL], P < .001). Treatment with high-dose senicapoc also produced significant decreases in such secondary end points as percentage of dense RBCs (-2.41 vs -0.08, P < .001); reticulocytes (-4.12 vs -0.46, P < .001); lactate dehydrogenase (-121 U/L vs -15 U/L, P = .002); and indirect bilirubin (-1.18 mg/dL vs 0.12 mg/dL, P < .001). Finally, senicapoc was safe and well tolerated. The increased hemoglobin concentration and concomitant decrease in the total number of reticulocytes and various markers of RBC destruction following senicapoc administration suggests a possible increase in the survival of sickle RBCs. This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00040677.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
132 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Red blood cell (RBC) hydration is regulated in part by the Ca(2+) -activated K(+) efflux (Gardos) channel. Senicapoc selectively blocks potassium efflux through the Gardos channel, reducing RBC dehydration and haemolysis, and increasing haemoglobin levels in sickle cell disease (SCD). This randomized, placebo-controlled trial was designed to determine the safety and clinical efficacy of senicapoc in SCD patients. One hundred and forty-five patients were randomized to receive senicapoc and 144 patients to receive placebo for 52 weeks. Consistent with a previous study, patients in the senicapoc group had significantly increased haematocrit, haemoglobin, and decreased numbers of both dense erythrocytes and reticulocytes when compared to the placebo group. The unblinded Data Monitoring Committee terminated this study early due to a lack of efficacy when it determined that, despite improvements in anaemia and haemolysis, no significant improvement in the rate of sickle cell painful crises was observed in patients treated with senicapoc compared to those on placebo (0·38 vs. 0·31, respectively). Comparisons of the times to first, second and third crises between the senicapoc and placebo groups were not statistically significant. Nausea and urinary tract infections occurred more frequently in the senicapoc group than placebo. Serious adverse events were similar in the two groups.
    British Journal of Haematology 02/2011; 153(1):92-104. · 4.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The activity of many ion channels is modulated by ions other than the ones they primarily conduct, with important consequences for cell signalling. In this study, we demonstrate that Mg(2+) inhibits the intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa3.1) in human erythroleukemia cells via two distinct mechanisms. Firstly, intracellular Mg(2+) blocks this channel via a rapid, voltage-dependent mechanism that leads to a reduction of the channel's unitary current. We show that this block involves interactions which are well described by the Woodhull model. Secondly, we found that Mg(2+) reduces the open probability of the channel. By analysing the channel kinetics, we found that this reduction in open probability is at least partly due to a reduction in the rate of channel opening from the closed state, a finding that can be accounted for if Mg(2+) competes with Ca(2+) for the activation site. Consistent with this interpretation, we find that the decline in relative NPo observed in the presence of 5 mM Mg(2+) could be significantly reduced by increasing the free Ca(2+) concentration.
    Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 11/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Allograft vasculopathy (AV) remains one of the major challenges to the long-term functioning of solid organ transplants. Although its exact pathogenesis remains unclear, AV is characterized by both fibromuscular proliferation and infiltration of CD4(+) memory T cells. We here tested whether two experimental immunosuppressants targeting K(+) channels might be useful for preventing AV. PAP-1 inhibits the voltage-gated Kv1.3 channel, which is overexpressed on CCR7(-) memory T cells and we therefore hypothesize that it should suppress the memory T cell component of AV. Based on its previous efficacy in restenosis and kidney fibrosis we expected that the KCa3.1 blocker TRAM-34 would primarily affect smooth muscle and fibroblast proliferation and thus reduce intimal hyperplasia. Using immunohistochemistry we demonstrated the presence of Kv1.3 on infiltrating T cells and of KCa3.1 on lymphocytes as well as on proliferating neointimal smooth muscle cells in human vasculopathy samples and in a rat aorta transplant model developing chronic AV. Treatment of PVG rats receiving orthotopically transplanted aortas from ACI rats with TRAM-34 dose-dependently reduced aortic luminal occlusion, intimal hyperplasia, mononuclear cell infiltration and collagen deposition 120 days after transplantation. The Kv1.3 blocker PAP-1 in contrast did not reduce intima hyperplasia despite drastically reducing plasma IFN-γ levels and inhibiting lymphocyte infiltration. Our findings suggest that KCa3.1 channels play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic AV and constitute an attractive target for the prevention of arteriopathy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e81006. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
27 Downloads
Available from
May 22, 2014