Sexual Orientation and Childhood Gender Nonconformity: Evidence From Home Videos

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, 2029 Sheridan Road, Swift Hall #102, Evanston IL 60208, USA.
Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.21). 02/2008; 44(1):46-58. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.44.1.46
Source: PubMed


Homosexual adults tend to be more gender nonconforming than heterosexual adults in some of their behaviors, feelings, and interests. Retrospective studies have also shown large differences in childhood gender nonconformity, but these studies have been criticized for possible memory biases. The authors studied an indicator of childhood gender nonconformity not subject to such biases: childhood home videos. They recruited homosexual and heterosexual men and women (targets) with videos from their childhood and subsequently asked heterosexual and homosexual raters to judge the gender nonconformity of the targets from both the childhood videos and adult videos made for the study. Prehomosexual children were judged more gender nonconforming, on average, than preheterosexual children, and this pattern obtained for both men and women. This difference emerged early, carried into adulthood, and was consistent with self-report. In addition, targets who were more gender nonconforming tended to recall more childhood rejection.

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Available from: J. Michael Bailey, Oct 13, 2015
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    • "This scale measured self-report of perceived gender nonconformity. We used five out of 10 items of the original scale items (i.e., items 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 in the men's version) (Rieger et al., 2008), which included statements such as " People think I should act more masculine than I do " (for male participants). Equivalent items were included for men and women. "
    Journal of LGBT Youth 07/2015; 12(3):233-253. DOI:10.1080/19361653.2015.1040188
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    • "Research has suggested that gay and lesbian individuals who tend to be more gender nonconforming during youth experience greater victimization (Grossman, D'Augelli, Howell, & Hubbard, 2005; Rieger, Linsenmeier, Bailey, & Gygax, 2008; Toomey, Ryan, Diaz, Card, & Russell, 2010), which in turn is related to poorer psychosocial adjustment (Toomey et al.). Kosciw, Greytak, and Bartkiewicz (2012) found that 58.7% of gender nonconforming students reported experiencing verbal harassment in schools due to their gender expression . "
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: This study tested the degree to which objectification based on masculine appearance norm violations and childhood harassment for gender nonconformity contributed to body image concerns (i.e., body shame and body surveillance) among sexual minority men. METHODS: A total of 216 sexual minority men living in the United States completed an online survey, with an average age of 29.92 (SD = 10.61). RESULTS: Body surveillance significantly mediated the relationship between masculine appearance norm violations and body shame. Body surveillance did not significantly mediate the relationship between childhood harassment for gender nonconformity and body shame; rather, childhood harassment for gender nonconformity directly predicted body shame. It was hypothesized that childhood harassment for gender nonconformity would moderate the following relationships: masculine appearance norm violations and body surveillance, masculine appearance norm violations and body shame, and body surveillance and body shame. No evidence for moderation was observed. DISCUSSION: Implications for mental health practice, future research, and strengths and limitations of the study are also discussed.
    Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health 04/2015; 19(2):1-20. DOI:10.1080/19359705.2014.993229
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    • "Maletypical sexual arousal in females may be due to elevated exposure to prenatal androgen that affects postnatal masculinized behaviors (Auyeung et al., 2009). These prenatal influences are possibly responsible for why homosexual women are more male-typical than heterosexual women in other ways, including their motor behaviors, voice patterns, physical appearance, and self-concepts (Freeman, Johnson, Ambady, & Rule, 2010; Lippa, 2008; Rieger, Linsenmeier, Gygax, & Bailey, 2008). The most masculine-behaving women may therefore have most male-typical sexual responses. "
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    ABSTRACT: Men's, more than women's, sexual responses may include a coordination of several physiological indices in order to build their sexual arousal to relevant targets. Here, for the first time, genital arousal and pupil dilation to sexual stimuli were simultaneously assessed. These measures corresponded more strongly with each other, subjective sexual arousal, and self-reported sexual orientation in men than women. Bisexual arousal is more prevalent in women than men. We therefore predicted that if bisexual-identified men show bisexual arousal, the correspondence of their arousal indices would be more female-typical, thus weaker, than for other men. Homosexual women show more male-typical arousal than other women; hence, their correspondence of arousal indices should be stronger than for other women. Findings, albeit weak in effect, supported these predictions. Thus, if sex-specific patterns are reversed within one sex, they might affect more than one aspect of sexual arousal. Because pupillary responses reflected sexual orientation similar to genital responses, they offer a less invasive alternative for the measurement of sexual arousal.
    Biological Psychology 01/2015; 104:56-64. DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.11.009 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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