Sexual Orientation and Childhood Gender Nonconformity: Evidence From Home Videos

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, 2029 Sheridan Road, Swift Hall #102, Evanston IL 60208, USA.
Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.21). 02/2008; 44(1):46-58. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.44.1.46
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Homosexual adults tend to be more gender nonconforming than heterosexual adults in some of their behaviors, feelings, and interests. Retrospective studies have also shown large differences in childhood gender nonconformity, but these studies have been criticized for possible memory biases. The authors studied an indicator of childhood gender nonconformity not subject to such biases: childhood home videos. They recruited homosexual and heterosexual men and women (targets) with videos from their childhood and subsequently asked heterosexual and homosexual raters to judge the gender nonconformity of the targets from both the childhood videos and adult videos made for the study. Prehomosexual children were judged more gender nonconforming, on average, than preheterosexual children, and this pattern obtained for both men and women. This difference emerged early, carried into adulthood, and was consistent with self-report. In addition, targets who were more gender nonconforming tended to recall more childhood rejection.

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Available from: J. Michael Bailey, Aug 26, 2015
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    • "Maletypical sexual arousal in females may be due to elevated exposure to prenatal androgen that affects postnatal masculinized behaviors (Auyeung et al., 2009). These prenatal influences are possibly responsible for why homosexual women are more male-typical than heterosexual women in other ways, including their motor behaviors, voice patterns, physical appearance, and self-concepts (Freeman, Johnson, Ambady, & Rule, 2010; Lippa, 2008; Rieger, Linsenmeier, Gygax, & Bailey, 2008). The most masculine-behaving women may therefore have most male-typical sexual responses. "
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    ABSTRACT: Men's, more than women's, sexual responses may include a coordination of several physiological indices in order to build their sexual arousal to relevant targets. Here, for the first time, genital arousal and pupil dilation to sexual stimuli were simultaneously assessed. These measures corresponded more strongly with each other, subjective sexual arousal, and self-reported sexual orientation in men than women. Bisexual arousal is more prevalent in women than men. We therefore predicted that if bisexual-identified men show bisexual arousal, the correspondence of their arousal indices would be more female-typical, thus weaker, than for other men. Homosexual women show more male-typical arousal than other women; hence, their correspondence of arousal indices should be stronger than for other women. Findings, albeit weak in effect, supported these predictions. Thus, if sex-specific patterns are reversed within one sex, they might affect more than one aspect of sexual arousal. Because pupillary responses reflected sexual orientation similar to genital responses, they offer a less invasive alternative for the measurement of sexual arousal.
    Biological Psychology 01/2015; 104:56-64. DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.11.009 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    • "The former position, based on observations that homosexual men and women tend to be more gender non-conforming than heterosexuals (Bailey et al., 1994; Lippa, 2002, 2008; Rieger et al., 2008), is associated with an idea that the brains of homosexual women and men have been respectively masculinized and feminized (or, more accurately, not masculinized) as a feature of their individual development (Blanchard et al., 2006; Lalumière, Blanchard, & Zucker, 2000; Rahman, 2005; Rahman & Wilson, 2003). Studies investigating this hypothesis have reported that homosexual men and women are more similar to heterosexual opposite sex than own sex counterparts in a variety of domains; homosexual men have more feminine digit length ratios (Manning, Churchill, & Peters, 2007), homosexual adults report patterns typical of the opposite sex in childhood play (Bailey & Zucker, 1995; Rieger et al., 2008), and homosexual individuals are more similar to opposite sex heterosexuals than to same sex heterosexuals in both preferences for body odours (Martins et al., 2005) and physiological response to pheromones (Savic, Berglund, & Lindström, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Human heterosexual mating preferences have been shown to conform to predictions drawn from evolutionary theory, with men and women adopting broadly distinct strategies. Attempts to reconcile sexual selection theory with homosexual behaviour have been less consistent, however, and have largely focussed on addressing two alternative perspectives: (i) that gay men and lesbians display phenotypic traits in common with opposite sex heterosexual individuals or (ii) that homosexual individuals display sex-typical, or exaggerated sex-typical phenotypes. Testing these hypotheses is complicated by sampling issues involved in the study of human sexual orientation, since obtaining standardised and comparable samples of heterosexual and non-heterosexual mating preferences is a prerequisite to analysis. Here we present a comparison of homosexual and heterosexual mating strategies in men and women using a sample of 1733 personal (‘lonely hearts’) adverts gathered from a single source. We used principal components analysis in order to expose underlying structure of the advertisements, and identify three components involving relative emphasis placed on resources, physical attractiveness and personality when offering or seeking mate characteristics. While homosexual individuals are shown to resemble their own-sex heterosexual counterparts in terms of emphasis placed on partner physical attractiveness relative to partner personality, no clear pattern emerges in other aspects of advertisement strategy. Nevertheless, there we find no evidence in support of the hypothesis that homosexual men and women are intrinsically opposite-sex typical in terms of mate preferences.
    Evolution and Human Behavior 09/2014; 35(5). DOI:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.05.006 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    • "It was also found that isolated facial cues, such as characteristic posturing around the mouth and eye area, provided sufficient information to enable abovechance accuracy in attributing sexual orientation (Rule et al., 2008). Besides facial appearance, previous studies tested the role of vocal and other behavioral cues in sexual orientation attribution and it was found that listeners could distinguish between the speech of homosexual and heterosexual targets (Gaudio, 1994; Linville, 1998; Rieger, Linsenmeier, Gygax, Garcia, & Bailey, 2010), observers accurately judged sexual orientation from short video-clips of walking style (Johnson, Gill, Reichman, & Tassinary, 2007; Rieger, Linsenmeier, Gygax, & Bailey, 2008), and, in one study, sexual orientation was accurately judged from video clips that were only 1 s in length (Ambady et al., 1999). It was also shown that, to some degree, such attributions work cross-culturally (Rule, Ishii, Ambady, Rosen, & Hallett, 2011; Valentova, Rieger, Havlicek , Linsenmeier, & Bailey, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that homosexual men differ from heterosexual men in several somatic traits and lay people accurately attribute sexual orientation based on facial images. Thus, we may predict that morphological differences between faces of homosexual and heterosexual individuals can cue to sexual orientation. The main aim of this study was to test for possible differences in facial shape between heterosexual and homosexual men. Further, we tested whether self-reported sexual orientation correlated with sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity attributed from facial images by independent raters. In Study 1, we used geometric morphometrics to test for differences in facial shape between homosexual and heterosexual men. The analysis revealed significant shape differences in faces of heterosexual and homosexual men. Homosexual men showed relatively wider and shorter faces, smaller and shorter noses, and rather massive and more rounded jaws, resulting in a mosaic of both feminine and masculine features. In Study 2, we tested the accuracy of sexual orientation judgment from standardized facial photos which were assessed by 80 independent raters. Binary logistic regression showed no effect of attributed sexual orientation on self-reported sexual orientation. However, homosexual men were rated as more masculine than heterosexual men, which may explain the misjudgment of sexual orientation. Thus, our results showed that differences in facial morphology of homosexual and heterosexual men do not simply mirror variation in femininity, and the stereotypic association of feminine looking men as homosexual may confound judgments of sexual orientation.
    Archives of Sexual Behavior 02/2014; 43(2). DOI:10.1007/s10508-013-0194-x · 3.53 Impact Factor
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