Benefit of low-fat over low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial health in obesity.

Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 7.63). 02/2008; 51(2):376-82. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.101824
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Obesity is associated with impaired endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation, a precursor to hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although dieting generally improves cardiovascular risk factors, the direct effect of different dietary strategies on vascular endothelial function is not known. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a low-fat (LF) diet improves endothelial function compared with an isocaloric low-carbohydrate (LC) diet. Obese (n=20; body mass index: 29 to 39; mean systolic blood pressure: 107 to 125 mm Hg) and otherwise healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to either the American Heart Association modeled LF (30% fat calories) diet or an isocaloric LC Atkins' style diet (20 g of carbohydrates) for 6 weeks (4-week weight loss and 2-week maintenance phase). Brachial flow-mediated dilation and dilation to nitroglycerin were measured with ultrasound using automated edge detection technology (baseline, week 2, and week 6). Blood pressure, weight loss, and cholesterol profiles were measured throughout the study. Weight loss was similar in LF (100+/-4 to 96.1+/-4 kg; P<0.001) and LC (95.4+/-4 to 89.7+/-4 kg; P<0.001) diets. Blood pressure decreased similarly in both groups (LF: 8/5 mm Hg; LC: 12/6 mm Hg) at 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the percentage of flow-mediated dilation improved (1.9+/-0.8; P<0.05) in the LF diet but was reduced in the LC diet (-1.4+/-0.6; P<0.05) versus baseline. Dilation to nitroglycerin and lipid panels was similar at 0, 2, and 6 weeks. Despite similar degrees of weight loss and changes blood pressure, LF diets improved brachial artery flow-mediated dilation over LC diets. LF diets may confer greater cardiovascular protection than LC diets.

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    ABSTRACT: Some popular weight loss diets restricting carbohydrates (CHO) claim to be more effective, and have additional health benefits in preventing cardiovascular disease compared to balanced weight loss diets.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e100652. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction. Effects of weight loss on endothelial function are however not clear. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to quantify effects of weight loss on flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, a measurement of endothelial function. Studies with experimental (RCTs) and quasi-experimental designs published before June 2014 were identified by a systematic search. Changes in FMD were defined as the difference between measurements before and after the study. For RCTs, changes were corrected for those in the no-weight loss control group. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) in FMD and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effect meta-analyses. The impact of subject characteristics, type of weight-loss treatment, and dietary composition on changes in FMD was also investigated. Four RCTs involving 265 subjects were included. Weight loss increased FMD vs. control by 3.29% (95% CI: 0.98-5.59%; P = 0.005; mean weight loss: 8.6 kg). A total of 1517 subjects participated in 33 studies with 49 relevant study arms. It was estimated that each 10 kg decrease in body weight increased fasting FMD by 1.11% (95% CI: 0.47-1.76%; P = 0.001). Effects were more pronounced when participants had coexisting obesity-related morbidities. Also, effects may be larger when subjects received low-fat diets or weight-reduction regimens including exercise therapy or weight-loss medication. Weight loss significantly improves fasting FMD in adults, which is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. Effects may depend on subject characteristics, type of weight-loss treatment, and dietary composition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Atherosclerosis 12/2014; 239(1):21-30. · 3.71 Impact Factor

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