Aspirin resistance and diabetes mellitus

Academic Unit of Molecular Vascular Medicine, The LIGHT Laboratories, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.
Diabetologia (Impact Factor: 6.67). 04/2008; 51(3):385-90. DOI: 10.1007/s00125-007-0898-3
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    • "Thus, an aggressive antiaggregating treatment with aspirin is strongly recommended for diabetic patients (4). The aspirin-induced prevention of cardiovascular events, however, is lower in diabetes than in the general population (5–7). Among the mechanisms involved in aspirin resistance are the accelerated half-life of circulating platelets, the occurrence of a proinflammatory and prothrombotic status, the presence of an increased oxidative stress responsible for platelet activation through isoprostanes, and the use of inadequate aspirin doses (8–10). "
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    ABSTRACT: Since hyperglycemia is involved in the "aspirin resistance" occurring in diabetes, we aimed at evaluating whether high glucose interferes with the aspirin-induced inhibition of thromboxane synthesis and/or activation of the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) pathway in platelets. For this purpose, in platelets from 60 healthy volunteers incubated for 60 min with 5-25 mmol/L d-glucose or iso-osmolar mannitol, we evaluated the influence of a 30-min incubation with lysine acetylsalicylate (L-ASA; 1-300 μmol/L) on 1) platelet function under shear stress; 2) aggregation induced by sodium arachidonate or ADP; 3) agonist-induced thromboxane production; and 4) NO production, cGMP synthesis, and PKG-induced vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation. Experiments were repeated in the presence of the antioxidant agent amifostine. We observed that platelet exposure to 25 mmol/L d-glucose, but not to iso-osmolar mannitol, 1) reduced the ability of L-ASA to inhibit platelet responses to agonists; 2) did not modify the L-ASA-induced inhibition of thromboxane synthesis; and 3) prevented the L-ASA-induced activation of the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway. Preincubation with amifostine reversed the high-glucose effects. Thus, high glucose acutely reduces the antiaggregating effect of aspirin, does not modify the aspirin-induced inhibition of thromboxane synthesis, and inhibits the aspirin-induced activation of the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway. These results identify a mechanism by which high glucose interferes with the aspirin action.
    Diabetes 07/2012; 61(11):2913-21. DOI:10.2337/db12-0040 · 8.10 Impact Factor
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    • "Diabetes mellitus (DM) is complicated by an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiovascular events [1] [2] [3]. Furthermore, diabetic patients without previous myocardial infarction (MI) carry a similarly high risk of developing acute MI as nondiabetic patients with previous MI [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is complicated by accelerated atherosclerosis, resulting in an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and thrombosis. Despite the proven benefits of aspirin, previous studies indicate a reduced cardiovascular protection from aspirin in diabetic patients. We aimed to investigate whether diabetes mellitus influenced the platelet response to aspirin in patients with CAD. Platelet aggregation and activation were evaluated during aspirin treatment in 85 diabetic and 92 non-diabetic patients with CAD. Adherence to aspirin was carefully controlled. All patients had CAD verified by coronary angiography and were taking 75 mg non-enteric coated aspirin daily. Diabetic patients showed significantly higher levels of platelet aggregation compared to non-diabetic patients evaluated by VerifyNow® Aspirin (p=0.03) and Multiplate® aggregometry using arachidonic acid (AA) 0.5 mM (p=0.005) and 1.0 mM (p=0.009). In addition, platelet activation determined by soluble P-selectin was significantly higher in diabetics compared to non-diabetics (p=0.005). The higher AA-induced aggregation was associated with higher levels of HbA(1c). Compliance was confirmed by low levels of serum thromboxane B(2) (below 7.2 ng/mL). Diabetics had significantly higher levels of serum thromboxane B(2) (p<0.0001). Diabetic patients with CAD had significantly higher levels of both platelet aggregation and activation compared to non-diabetic patients with CAD despite treatment with the same dosage of aspirin. These findings may partly explain the reduced cardiovascular protection from aspirin in diabetic patients.
    Thrombosis Research 05/2010; 126(4):e318-22. DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2010.03.013 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperglycaemia may attenuate the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and thereby increase the risk of cardiovascular events. We investigated the influence of increased haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels on platelet aggregation and turnover in a large cohort of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with type 2 diabetes, prediabetes or no diabetes. In this observational study, we included 865 stable CAD patients on 75 mg aspirin as mono-therapy of whom 242 patients had type 2 diabetes and were receiving antidiabetic drugs. Among 623 patients without diabetes, we classified 303 patients with prediabetes (HbA1c ≥5.7-6.4% [39-47 mmol/mol]) naive to antidiabetic drugs. Platelet aggregation was evaluated by the Multiplate Analyzer using arachidonic acid and collagen and by the VerifyNow Aspirin. Platelet turnover was evaluated by immature platelets using flow cytometry and platelet activation by soluble P-selectin. CAD patients with type 2 diabetes had higher platelet aggregation (all p-values <0.01), platelet turnover (immature platelet count, p<0.01) and platelet activation (p<0.001) than patients without diabetes. CAD patients with prediabetes had increased platelet aggregation (p = 0.02) and platelet count (p = 0.02) compared with patients without diabetes. Increased levels of HbA1c correlated positively with increased platelet aggregation using arachidonic acid (r = 0.19, p<0.0001), collagen (r = 0.10, p<0.01) and VerifyNow (r = 0.15, p<0.0001), and with platelet count (r = 0.08, p = 0.01), immature platelet count (r = 0.11, p<0.001) and soluble P-selectin (r = 0.15, p<0.0001). These associations were mainly evident in non-diabetic and prediabetic CAD patients. CAD patients with prediabetes and diabetes may have attenuated antiplatelet effect of aspirin compared with CAD patients without diabetes. This may be related to increased platelet count in patients with prediabetes. Increased levels of HbA1c correlated positively, though weakly, with increased platelet aggregation, platelet turnover and platelet activation.
    PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0132629. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132629 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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