Nanotemplate-engineered nanoparticles containing gadolinium for magnetic resonance imaging of tumors.
ABSTRACT To design nanoparticles containing accessible gadolinium atoms (Gd-NPs) as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging of tumors.
Nanoparticles containing phospholipid-chelates (phosphoethanolamine diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) and DSPE-PEG (MW5000) were prepared from Brij 78 and stearyl alcohol using the nanotemplate engineering approach. After addition of GdCl3, the presence of gadolinium on the surface of nanoparticles was quantified using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The in vitro relaxivities of the Gd-NPs in phosphate buffered saline were assessed at 4.7 T. The conditional binding constants of nanoparticle formulations were determined spectrophotometrically by competitive titration. Transmetallation kinetics of Gd from nanoparticles with Cu2+ and Zn2+ as the competing ions was measured in acetate buffer. The biodistribution profiles, pharmacokinetics, and contrast enhancement in tumor region was studied after administration of Gd-NPs to nude mice bearing A549 lung carcinoma xenografts.
Gd-NPs with an average diameter of 138 nm possessing surface chelating functions were prepared from GRAS (generally regarded as safe) materials. The longitudinal relaxivity (r1) and transverse relaxivity (r2) of Gd-NPs in 10% fetal bovine serum at 4.7 T were 7.1 (+/-0.2) and 13.0 (+/-0.7) 1/mM/s, respectively. These pegylated Gd-NPs had enhanced relaxivities and exhibited particle size stability, sufficient binding affinity, and kinetic inertness under physiologic conditions. The contrast enhancement in tumors was demonstrated 40, 120, and 360 minutes after intravenous injection of Gd-NPs at a dose of 0.1 mmol Gd/kg. The Gd plasma concentration of Gd-NPs over a period of 24 hours fit a two-compartmental model with Cl sys = 0.89 mL/h and MRT = 5.93 h. The amount of Gd that accumulated in the tumor region was consistent with the estimated value obtained by T1 measurements using MR imaging.
Pegylated nanoparticles composed of biocompatible, biodegradable materials and possessing accessible Gd ions on their surface induce relaxivities in the bulk water signal and accumulated sufficiently in tumors, demonstrating their utility as potential magnetic resonance imaging tumor contrast enhancement agents.
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that bufalin has a good antitumor effect but has high toxicity, poor water solubility, a short half-life, a narrow therapeutic window, and a toxic dose that is close to the therapeutic dose, which all limit its clinical application. This study aimed to determine the targeting efficacy of nanoparticles (NPs) made of methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG), polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), poly-L-lysine (PLL), and cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) loaded with bufalin, ie, bufalin-loaded mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD nanoparticles (BNPs), in SW620 colon cancer-bearing mice. BNPs showed uniform size. The size, shape, zeta potential, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and release of these nanoparticles were studied in vitro. The tumor targeting, cellular uptake, and growth-inhibitory effect of BNPs in vivo were tested. BNPs were of uniform size with an average particle size of 164 ± 84 nm and zeta potential of 2.77 mV. The encapsulation efficiency was 81.7% ± 0.89%, and the drug load was 3.92% ± 0.16%. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity studies showed that although the blank NPs were nontoxic, they enhanced the cytotoxicity of bufalin in BNPs. Drug release experiments showed that the release of the drug was prolonged and sustained. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that BNPs could effectively bind to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In the SW620 xenograft mice model, the BNPs could effectively target the tumor in vivo. The BNPs were significantly more effective than other NPs in preventing tumor growth. BNPs had even size distribution, were stable, and had a slow-releasing and tumor-targeting effect. BNPs significantly inhibited colon cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. As a novel drug carrier system, BNPs are a potentially promising targeting treatment for colon cancer.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2012; 7:3961-9. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this review, the applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine are summarized and introduced in three parts. (1) A short description of magnetic nanoparticles is explained. (2) Applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine are summarized. In biology, new progress of the magnetic separation techniques based on magnetic nanoparticles is discussed. In medicine, the magnetic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents (particularly as a hyperthermia agent, a targeted drug delivery carrier, and a magnetofection agent) as well as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are explained in detail. (3) A discussion and remarking conclusion of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical applications are described. Finally, a perspective of the magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine in future is also described.Nano brief reports and reviews 11/2011; 05(05). · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the importance of PEGylation in achieving long nanoparticle circulation times, many nanoparticles are coated with PEGylating agents susceptible to enzymatic degradation. In this study, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) prepared with ester-containing compounds were evaluated for their stability in the presence of carboxylesterase. SLN suspensions became turbid within 30 min of enzymatic exposure, indicating possible disassociation of a portion of the nanoparticles. The particle size of SLNs incubated with the enzyme was smaller than the size of controls, although their morphologies appeared similar in transmission electron microscopy images. Although SLNs offered some protection over micelles, PEG6000 monostearate was rapidly degraded within 15 min. Hydrolysis of polysorbate 60 was much slower, reaching only 36% in 2 h. These studies reveal the importance of confirming the stability of PEG surface coatings prior to undertaking in vivo experiments in small animal models, which can have considerably higher plasma esterase activity than humans.Langmuir 07/2012; 28(33):12030-7. · 4.38 Impact Factor