Nanotemplate-engineered nanoparticles containing gadolinium for magnetic resonance imaging of tumors.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0082, USA.
Investigative Radiology (Impact Factor: 5.46). 03/2008; 43(2):129-40. DOI: 10.1097/RLI.0b013e31815878dd
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To design nanoparticles containing accessible gadolinium atoms (Gd-NPs) as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging of tumors.
Nanoparticles containing phospholipid-chelates (phosphoethanolamine diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) and DSPE-PEG (MW5000) were prepared from Brij 78 and stearyl alcohol using the nanotemplate engineering approach. After addition of GdCl3, the presence of gadolinium on the surface of nanoparticles was quantified using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The in vitro relaxivities of the Gd-NPs in phosphate buffered saline were assessed at 4.7 T. The conditional binding constants of nanoparticle formulations were determined spectrophotometrically by competitive titration. Transmetallation kinetics of Gd from nanoparticles with Cu2+ and Zn2+ as the competing ions was measured in acetate buffer. The biodistribution profiles, pharmacokinetics, and contrast enhancement in tumor region was studied after administration of Gd-NPs to nude mice bearing A549 lung carcinoma xenografts.
Gd-NPs with an average diameter of 138 nm possessing surface chelating functions were prepared from GRAS (generally regarded as safe) materials. The longitudinal relaxivity (r1) and transverse relaxivity (r2) of Gd-NPs in 10% fetal bovine serum at 4.7 T were 7.1 (+/-0.2) and 13.0 (+/-0.7) 1/mM/s, respectively. These pegylated Gd-NPs had enhanced relaxivities and exhibited particle size stability, sufficient binding affinity, and kinetic inertness under physiologic conditions. The contrast enhancement in tumors was demonstrated 40, 120, and 360 minutes after intravenous injection of Gd-NPs at a dose of 0.1 mmol Gd/kg. The Gd plasma concentration of Gd-NPs over a period of 24 hours fit a two-compartmental model with Cl sys = 0.89 mL/h and MRT = 5.93 h. The amount of Gd that accumulated in the tumor region was consistent with the estimated value obtained by T1 measurements using MR imaging.
Pegylated nanoparticles composed of biocompatible, biodegradable materials and possessing accessible Gd ions on their surface induce relaxivities in the bulk water signal and accumulated sufficiently in tumors, demonstrating their utility as potential magnetic resonance imaging tumor contrast enhancement agents.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study sought to evaluate the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) efficacy of manganese [Mn(II)] molecular imaging probes targeted to oxidation-specific epitopes (OSE). OSE are critical in the initiation, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Gadolinium [Gd(III)]-based MRI agents can be associated with systemic toxicity. Mn is an endogenous, biocompatible, paramagnetic metal ion that has poor MR efficacy when chelated, but strong efficacy when released within cells. Multimodal Mn micelles were generated to contain rhodamine for confocal microscopy and conjugated with either the murine monoclonal IgG antibody MDA2 targeted to malondialdehyde (MDA)-lysine epitopes or the human single-chain Fv antibody fragment IK17 targeted to MDA-like epitopes ("targeted micelles"). Micelle formulations were characterized in vitro and in vivo, and their MR efficacy (9.4-T) evaluated in apolipoprotein-deficient (apoE(-/-)) and low-density lipoprotein receptor negative (LDLR(-/-)) mice (0.05 mmol Mn/kg dose) (total of 120 mice for all experiments). In vivo competitive inhibition studies were performed to evaluate target specificity. Untargeted, MDA2-Gd, and IK17-Gd micelles (0.075 mmol Gd/kg) were included as controls. In vitro studies demonstrated that targeted Mn micelles accumulate in macrophages when pre-exposed to MDA-LDL with ∼10× increase in longitudinal relativity. Following intravenous injection, strong MR signal enhancement was observed 48 to 72 h after administration of targeted Mn micelles, with colocalization within intraplaque macrophages. Co-injection of free MDA2 with the MDA2-Mn micelles resulted in full suppression of MR signal in the arterial wall, confirming target specificity. Similar MR efficacy was noted in apoE(-/-) and LDLR(-/-) mice with aortic atherosclerosis. No significant differences in MR efficacy were noted between targeted Mn and Gd micelles. This study demonstrates that biocompatible multimodal Mn-based molecular imaging probes detect OSE within atherosclerotic plaques and may facilitate clinical translation of noninvasive imaging of human atherosclerosis.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/2012; 59(6):616-26. · 14.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that bufalin has a good antitumor effect but has high toxicity, poor water solubility, a short half-life, a narrow therapeutic window, and a toxic dose that is close to the therapeutic dose, which all limit its clinical application. This study aimed to determine the targeting efficacy of nanoparticles (NPs) made of methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG), polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), poly-L-lysine (PLL), and cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) loaded with bufalin, ie, bufalin-loaded mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD nanoparticles (BNPs), in SW620 colon cancer-bearing mice. BNPs showed uniform size. The size, shape, zeta potential, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and release of these nanoparticles were studied in vitro. The tumor targeting, cellular uptake, and growth-inhibitory effect of BNPs in vivo were tested. BNPs were of uniform size with an average particle size of 164 ± 84 nm and zeta potential of 2.77 mV. The encapsulation efficiency was 81.7% ± 0.89%, and the drug load was 3.92% ± 0.16%. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity studies showed that although the blank NPs were nontoxic, they enhanced the cytotoxicity of bufalin in BNPs. Drug release experiments showed that the release of the drug was prolonged and sustained. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that BNPs could effectively bind to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In the SW620 xenograft mice model, the BNPs could effectively target the tumor in vivo. The BNPs were significantly more effective than other NPs in preventing tumor growth. BNPs had even size distribution, were stable, and had a slow-releasing and tumor-targeting effect. BNPs significantly inhibited colon cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. As a novel drug carrier system, BNPs are a potentially promising targeting treatment for colon cancer.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2012; 7:3961-9. · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether iron oxide particles targeted to oxidation-specific epitopes image atherosclerotic lesions. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein plays a major role in atherosclerotic plaque progression and destabilization. Prior studies indicate that gadolinium micelles labeled with oxidation-specific antibodies allow for in vivo detection of vulnerable plaques with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, issues related to biotransformation/retention of gadolinium might limit clinical translation. Iron oxides are recognized as safe and effective contrast agents for MRI. Because the efficacy of passively targeted iron particles remains variable, it was hypothesized that iron particles targeted to oxidation-specific epitopes might increase the utility of this platform. Lipid-coated ultra-small superparamagnetic iron particles (LUSPIOs) (<20 nm) and superparamagnetic iron particles (<40 nm) were conjugated with antibodies targeted to either malondialdehyde-lysine or oxidized phospholipid epitopes. All formulations were characterized, and their in vivo efficacy evaluated in apolipoprotein E deficient mice 24 h after bolus administration of a 3.9-mg Fe/kg dose with MRI. In vivo imaging data were correlated with the presence of oxidation-specific epitopes with immunohistochemistry. MRI of atherosclerotic lesions, as manifested by signal loss, was observed after administration of targeted LUSPIOs. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of malondialdehyde-epitopes and iron particles. Limited signal attenuation was observed for untargeted LUSPIOs. Additionally, no significant arterial wall uptake was observed for targeted or untargeted lipid-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide particles, due to their limited ability to penetrate the vessel wall. This study demonstrates that LUSPIOs targeted to oxidation-specific epitopes image atherosclerotic lesions and suggests a clinically translatable platform for the detection of atherosclerotic plaque.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2011; 57(3):337-47. · 14.09 Impact Factor