Mediterranean diet and metabolic diseases.
ABSTRACT The objective of this article is to present evidence illustrating the relationship between Mediterranean diets and metabolic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, and to briefly discuss potential mechanisms by which these diets can help in disease prevention and treatment.
Although the Mediterranean diet has long been celebrated for its impact on cardiovascular health, mounting evidence indicates a favorable effect on obesity and type 2 diabetes, as well. While health promotion strategies aimed at preventing adult obesity are emphasizing components of Mediterranean dietary patterns, a role for Mediterranean diets in attenuating the inflammatory burden associated with type 2 diabetes is also emerging. Moreover, a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is associated with dietary patterns rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy products, and unsaturated fats. Both epidemiological and interventional studies have revealed a protective effect of the Mediterranean diet against mild chronic inflammation and its metabolic complications.
Mounting evidence suggests that Mediterranean diets could serve as an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, which could help fighting diseases that are related to chronic inflammation, including visceral obesity, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.
Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2011; 16(1):1609. DOI:10.2741/3808 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) has a complex and progressive neurodegenerative phenotype, with hypometabolism and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics among the earliest pathogenic events. Bioenergetic deficits are well documented in preclinical models of mammalian aging and AD, emerge early in the prodromal phase of AD, and in those at risk for AD. This review discusses the importance of early therapeutic intervention during the prodromal stage that precedes irreversible degeneration in AD. Mechanisms of action for current mitochondrial and bioenergetic therapeutics for AD broadly fall into the following categories: 1) glucose metabolism and substrate supply; 2) mitochondrial enhancers to potentiate energy production; 3) antioxidants to scavenge reactive oxygen species and reduce oxidative damage; 4) candidates that target apoptotic and mitophagy pathways to either remove damaged mitochondria or prevent neuronal death. Thus far, mitochondrial therapeutic strategies have shown promise at the preclinical stage but have had little-to-no success in clinical trials. Lessons learned from preclinical and clinical therapeutic studies are discussed. Understanding the bioenergetic adaptations that occur during aging and AD led us to focus on a systems biology approach that targets the bioenergetic system rather than a single component of this system. Bioenergetic system-level therapeutics personalized to bioenergetic phenotype would target bioenergetic deficits across the prodromal and clinical stages to prevent and delay progression of AD.Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 12/2014; 12(1). DOI:10.1007/s13311-014-0324-8 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study conducted as part of a screening program for the promotion of community health in the primary care setting of Ormos Korthi in Andros, Greece. The objective of this study was to identify the levels of glucose and total cholesterol in individuals without major cardiovascular problems in order to identify cases of undetected dyslipidemia and high blood glucose levels, in a rural population located in the southern part of Andros Island, Greece. In total, 242 individuals (152 women, mean age 65.1 ± 12.3 and range 33-91 years) were examined for the determination of serum glucose and total cholesterol levels. Participants were arbitrarily divided into 5 age groups and statistical differences between groups investigated. The mean serum glucose level was 125.1 ± 42.4 mg/dl and the mean total serum cholesterol level was 225.2 ± 44.9 mg/dl. Statistical differences were not observed between the age groups in either the glucose or cholesterol levels. Difference between men and women was not significant regarding glucose levels while women had significantly elevated levels of total cholesterol (P < 0.01). Age was significantly correlated with glucose, but statistical analysis did not show significant correlation between age and total cholesterol levels. The present study confirms that dyslipidemia and high blood glucose levels are prevalent among the rural populations of Greece and therefore informative campaigns and structured screening programs are required to promote preventive health care.International journal of preventive medicine 11/2014; 5(11):1464-7.