Griffin BA. How relevant is the ratio of dietary n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to cardiovascular disease risk? Evidence from the OPTILIP study. Curr Opin Lipidol 19, 57-62

Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK.
Current Opinion in Lipidology (Impact Factor: 5.66). 03/2008; 19(1):57-62. DOI: 10.1097/MOL.0b013e3282f2e2a8
Source: PubMed


There has been much debate over the practical utility of the dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in optimizing the benefits of n-3 fatty acids (C18-C22) on cardiovascular health. This review examines the supporting evidence from the OPTILIP study within the context of the emerging consensus on the value of this dietary metric.
The question of whether the ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids or total amounts of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids is of more importance to cardiovascular health has been addressed recently in a randomly controlled trial (OPTILIP) and in a stable isotope tracer study. These two studies were independently unanimous in concluding that the ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is of no value in modifying cardiovascular disease risk. The latter study also showed that the absolute amounts of dietary linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid are of relevance to the efficiency of conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.
This review should help to settle any outstanding controversy over the dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. It reinforces current recommendations to increase the consumption of preformed eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid in fish, and supports dietary measures to increase and decrease intakes alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, respectively, to promote the endogenous synthesis of these longer chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

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Available from: Bruce A Griffin, Sep 02, 2014
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    • "High levels of DHA, however, the most abundant n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Supplement of EPA helped cancer patients retain muscle mass (de Lorgeril and Salen, 2006; Gillum et al., 1996; Griffin 2008; Iso et al., 2001; Keli et al., 1994). "
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    • "Nutritionists recommend a reduction in total fat intake, particularly of SFA and trans fatty acids, which are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and some cancers (Burlingame et al., 2009; Brouwer et al., 2010; USDA and HHS, 2010; Mapiye et al., 2011). Besides advocating that they reduce their fat intake, nutritionists urge consumers to increase their intake of PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFA, at the expense of n-6 PUFA (Simopoulos, 2004; Griffin, 2008; Harris et al., 2009; Mapiye et al., 2011). The PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios have therefore become some of the most important parameters in evaluating the nutritional value and healthiness of foods (Aldai et al., 2005; Alfaia et al., 2007; Riediger et al., 2009; Mapiye et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of different feeding systems (free-range versus conventional rearing) on carcass characteristics, chemical composition, fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) of Mangalitsa pigs. Depending on the rearing system employed and live weight observed, we found statistically significant differences in the weight of the warm and cold Mangalitsa carcasses. Furthermore, we observed that conventionally reared Mangalitsa pigs weighed more. Measurements showed that the free-range-fed pigs had a lower total backfat thickness in comparison with the group reared in the conventional system, but that these differences were not significant. Outdoor rearing of the pigs led to higher protein, ash and water contents, and to a decrease in total fat content and pH values of the MLLT. The choice of rearing system did not significantly affect the cholesterol content. The fat of the free-range pigs had a higher concentration of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), while the n-6/n-3 PUPA ratio was significantly lower than in conventionally reared pigs. The proportion of PUFA/SFA (saturated fatty acids) was not significantly different, whereas the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFA) was significantly lower in the free-range group. It is concluded that the rearing system affects the carcass properties and chemical characteristics of Mangalitsa meat; it does so in particular by improving the fatty acid composition in free-range pigs.
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    • "Nutricionisti preporučuju smanjenje unosa ukupnih masti, a posebno zasićenih masnih kiselina i trans masnih kiselina, koje se povezuju sa povećanim rizikom od kardiovaskularnih bolesti i nekih tipova kancera [8] [9]. Pored smanjenog unosa masti, nutricionisti preporučuju povećani unos polinezasićenih masnih kiselina (PNMK), posebno n- 3 PNMK, na račun n-6 PNMK [9] [10] [11]. Na osnovu toga, prilikom procene hranljive i zdravstvene vrednosti hrane, kao značajni parametri javljaju se odnosi PNMK/ZMK i n-6/n-3 PNMK [9] [12] [13] [14] [15]. "
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